XI CS std-mat-1

SUPPORT MATERIAL
COMPUTER SCIENCE
2012-13

CBSE Mark Distribution for different Units

Sl. No Unit Name Marks
1 UNIT 1 Computer Fundamental 10
2 UNIT 2 Introduction to C++ 14
3 UNIT 3 Programming Methodology 10
4 UNIT 4 Programming in C++ 36
Total Marks 70

Weightage to different forms of questions
S. No. Forms of Question Marks for each question No. of Questions Total Marks
1 Very Short Answer Questions (VSA) 01 09 09
2 Short Answer Questions- Type 1 (SA1) 02 13 26
3 Short Answer Questions- Type II (SAII) 03 05 15
4 Long Answer Questions- (LA) 04 05 20
Total 32 70

Difficulty Level of Questions
S. N. Estimated Difficulty Level Percentage of questions
1 Easy 15%
2 Average 70%
3 Difficult 15%

INDEX

S.No. Topics
PAGE NO.
1 Unit 1 : Computer Fundamentals 06
2 Unit 2 : Introduction to C++ 27
3 Unit 3 : Programming methodology 40
4 Unit 4: Programming in C++ 43
5 Sample Papers 115

Unit-1
Computer Fundamentals
Objective:
 To impart in-depth knowledge of computer related basic terminologies.
 To inculcate the skills of implementation of basic theory in troubleshooting the software & hardware problems.

What is Computer?
Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for the future use. It can process both numerical and non-numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations.
A computer has four functions:
a. accepts data Input
b. processes data Processing
c. produces output Output
d. stores results Storage

Input (Data):
Input is the raw information entered into a computer from the input devices. It is the collection of letters, numbers, images etc.
Process:
Process is the operation of data as per given instruction. It is totally internal process of the computer system.
Output:
Output is the processed data given by computer after data processing. Output is also called as Result. We can save these results in the storage devices for the future use.

Computer System
All of the components of a computer system can be summarized with the simple equations.
COMPUTER SYSTEM = HARDWARE + SOFTWARE+ USER

• Hardware = Internal Devices + Peripheral Devices
All physical parts of the computer (or everything that we can touch) are known as Hardware.
• Software = Programs
Software gives “intelligence” to the computer.
• USER = Person, who operates computer.

Generation of computer:

First Generation (1940-56):
The first generation computers used vaccum tubes & machine language was used for giving the instructions. These computer were large in size & their programming was difficult task. The electricity consumption was very high. Some computers of this generation are ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC & UNIVAC-1.
Second Generation(1956-63):
In 2nd generation computers, vaccum tubes were replaced by transistors. They required only 1/10 of power required by tubes. This generation computers generated less heat & were reliable. The first operating system developed in this generation.
The Third Generation(1964-71):
The 3rd generation computers replaced transistors with Integrated circuit known as chip. From Small scale integrated circuits which had 10 transistors per chip, technology developed to MSI circuits with 100 transistors per chip. These computers were smaller, faster & more reliable. High level languages invented in this generation.
The fourth Generation(1972- present):
LSI & VLSI were used in this generation. As a result microprocessors came into existence. The computers using this technology known to be Micro Computers. High capacity hard disk were invented. There is great development in data communication.

The Fifth Generation (Present & Beyond):
Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come.

ARCHITECTURE OF COMPUTER

Input Devices: Those devices which help to enter data into computer system. Eg. Keyboad, Mouse, Touchscreen, Barcode Reader, Scanner, MICR, OMR etc.

Bar code Reader MICR used in Bank OMR(Used for answer sheet evaluation)

Output Devices: Those devices which help to display the processed information. Eg. Monitor, Printer, Plotter, Projector

Printer Plotter Projector

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
The main component to make a computer operate is the computer chip or microprocessor. This is referred to as the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and is housed in the computer case. Together, they are also called the CPU. It performs arithmetic and logic operations. The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the device that interprets and executes instructions.
Processor

Memory: It facilitates the remembrance power to computer system. It refers to the physical devices used to store programs (sequences of instructions) or data (e.g. program state information) on a temporary or permanent basis for use in a computer or other digital electronic device. The term primary memory is used for the information in physical systems which are fast (i.e. RAM), as a distinction from secondary memory, which are physical devices for program and data storage which are slow to access but offer higher memory capacity. Primary memory stored on secondary memory is called virtual memory. Primary Memory can be categorized as Volatile Memory & Non-Volatile Memory.
Volatile memory(RAM)
Volatile memory is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information. Most modern semiconductor volatile memory is either Static RAM or dynamic RAM.
SRAM retains its contents as long as the power is connected and is easy to interface to but uses six transistors per bit.

Dynamic RAM is more complicated to interface to and control and needs regular refresh cycles to prevent its contents being lost. However, DRAM uses only one transistor and a capacitor per bit, allowing it to reach much higher densities and, with more bits on a memory chip, be much cheaper per bit. SRAM is not worthwhile for desktop system memory, where DRAM dominates, but is used for their cache memories..
Non Volatile Memory (ROM)
Non-volatile memory is computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered.
Examples of non-volatile memory are flash memory and ROM/PROM/EPROM/EEPROM memory (used for firmware such as boot programs).

Cache Memory:
Cache memory is random access memory (RAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM. As the microprocessor processes data, it looks first in the cache memory and if it finds the data there (from a previous reading of data), it does not have to do the more time-consuming reading of data from larger memory. It is of two types- L1 cache is on the same chip as the microprocessor. L2 is usually a separate static RAM (SRAM) chip.

Secondary Memory:
A. Hard Disk (Local Disk)
B. Optical Disks: CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW
C. Pen Drive
D. Floppy Disks
F. Memory Cards
G. External Hard Disk
H. Blu Ray Disk

Blu-Ray Disk:
Blu-ray (not Blue-ray) also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD), is the name of a new optical disc format. The format offers more than five times the storage capacity of traditional DVDs and can hold up to 25GB on a single-layer disc and 50GB on a dual-layer disc. While current optical disc technologies such as DVD, DVD±R, DVD±RW, and DVD-RAM rely on a red laser to read and write data, the new format uses a blue-violet laser instead, hence the name Blu-ray.

Units of Memory:

The smallest unit is bit, which mean either 0 or 1.
1 bit = 0 or 1
1 Byte = 8 bit
1 Nibble = 4 bit
1 Kilo Byte = 1024 Byte= 210 Byte
1 Mega Byte = 1024 KB= 210 KB
1 Gega Byte = 1024 MB= 210 MB
1 Tera Byte = 1024 GB= 210 GB
1 Peta Byte =1024 TB= 210 TB
1 Exa Byte =1024 PB= 210 PB
1 Zetta Byte = 1024 EB= 210 EB
1 Yotta Byte = 1024 ZB= 210 ZB

Booting
The process of loading the system files of the operating system from the disk into the computer memory to complete the circuitry requirement of the computer system is called booting.
Types of Booting:
There are two types of booting:
• Cold Booting: If the computer is in off state and we boot the computer by pressing the power switch ‘ON’ from the CPU box then it is called as cold booting.

• Warm Booting: If the computer is already ‘ON’ and we restart it by pressing the ‘RESET’ button from the CPU box or CTRL, ALT and DEL key simultaneously from the keyboard then it is called warm booting.

Types of Computer
On the basis of working principle
a) Analog Computer
An analog computer is a form of computer that uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.
Eg: Thermometer, Speedometer, Petrol pump indicator, Multimeter

b) Digital Computer
A computer that performs calculations and logical operations with quantities represented as digits, usually in the binary number system.

c) Hybrid Computer (Analog + Digital)
A combination of computers those are capable of inputting and outputting in both digital and analog signals. A hybrid computer system setup offers a cost effective method of performing complex simulations. The instruments used in medical science lies in this category.

On the basis of Size

a) Super Computer
The fastest type of computer. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration. PARAM, Pace & Flosolver are the supercomputer made in india.

b) Mainframe Computer
A very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts with a simple microprocessor (in watches, for example) at the bottom and moves to supercomputers at the top, mainframes are just below supercomputers. In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe.

c) Mini Computer
A midsized computer. In size and power, minicomputers lie between workstations and mainframes. In the past decade, the distinction between large minicomputers and small mainframes has blurred, however, as has the distinction between small minicomputers and workstations. But in general, a minicomputer is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting from 4 to about 200 users simultaneously. Generally, servers are comes in this category.
d) Micro Computer
i. Desktop Computer: a personal or micro-mini computer sufficient to fit on a desk.

ii. Laptop Computer: a portable computer complete with an integrated screen and keyboard. It is generally smaller in size than a desktop computer and larger than a notebook computer.

iii. Palmtop Computer/Digital Diary /Notebook /PDAs: a hand-sized computer. Palmtops have no keyboard but the screen serves both as an input and output device.
e) Workstations
A terminal or desktop computer in a network. In this context, workstation is just a generic term for a user’s machine (client machine) in contrast to a “server” or “mainframe.”

Software
Software, simply are the computer programs. The instructions given to the computer in the form of a program is called Software. Software is the set of programs, which are used for different purposes. All the programs used in computer to perform specific task is called Software.
Types of software
1. System software:
a) Operating System Software
DOS, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Unix/Linux, MAC/OS X etc.
b) Utility Software
Windows Explorer (File/Folder Management), Compression Tool, Anti-Virus Utilities, Disk Defragmentation, Disk Clean, BackUp, WinZip, WinRAR etc…
c) Language Processors
Compiler, Interpreter and Assembler
2. Application software:
a) Package Software
Ms. Office 2003, Ms. Office 2007, Macromedia (Dreamweaver, Flash, Freehand), Adobe (PageMaker, PhotoShop)
b) Tailored or Custom Software
School Management system, Inventory Management System, Payroll system, financial system etc.

Operating system
Operating system is a platform between hardware and user which is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of a computer. It hosts the several applications that run on a computer and handles the operations of computer hardware.

Functions of operating System:
• Processor Management
• Memory Management
• File Management
• Device Management

Types of Operating System:
• Real-time Operating System: It is a multitasking operating system that aims at executing real-time applications. Example of Use: e.g. control of nuclear power plants, oil refining, chemical processing and traffic control systems, air
• Single User Systems: Provides a platform for only one user at a time. They are popularly associated with Desk Top operating system which run on standalone systems where no user accounts are required. Example: DOS.
• Multi User Systems:Provides regulated access for a number of users by maintaining a database of known users.Refers to computer systems that support two or more simultaneous users. Another term for multi-user is time sharing. Ex: All mainframes are multi-user systems. Example: Unix
• Multi-tasking and Single-tasking Operating Systems: When a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is grouped under the single-tasking system category, while in case the operating system allows for execution of multiple tasks at a time, it is classified as a multi-tasking operating system.
• Distributed Operating System: An operating system that manages a group of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single computer is known as a distributed operating system. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. When computers in a group work in cooperation, they make a distributed system.
Commonly used operating system

UNIX: Pronounced yoo-niks, a popular multi-user, multitasking operating system developed at Bell Labs in the early 1970s. UNIX was one of the first operating systems to be written in a high-level programming language, namely C. This meant that it could be installed on virtually any computer for which a C compiler existed.

LINUX: Pronounced lee-nucks or lih-nucks. A freely-distributable open source operating system that runs on a number of hardware platforms. The Linux kernel was developed mainly by Linus Torvalds and it is based on Unix. Because it’s free, and because it runs on many platforms, including PCs and Macintoshes, Linux has become an extremely popular alternative to proprietary operating systems.
Windows: Microsoft Windows is a series of graphical interface operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs).[2] Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world’s personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984.The most recent client version of Windows is Windows 7; the most recent server version is Windows Server 2008 R2; the most recent mobile version is Windows Phone 7.5.
SOLARIS: Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle’s acquisition of Sun in January 2010.
BOSS: BOSS (Bharat Operating System Solutions) GNU/Linux distribution developed by C-DAC (Centre for Development of Advanced Computing) derived from Debian for enhancing the use of Free/ Open Source Software throughout India. This release aims more at the security part and comes with an easy to use application to harden your Desktop.
Mobile OS: A mobile operating system, also called a mobile OS, is an operating system that is specifically designed to run on mobile devices such as mobile phones, smartphones, PDAs, tablet computers and other handheld devices. The mobile operating system is the software platform on top of which other programs, called application programs, can run on mobile devices.
• Android: Android is a Linux-based mobile phone operating system developed by Google. Android is unique because Google is actively developing the platform but giving it away for free to hardware manufacturers and phone carriers who want to use Android on their devices.

• Symbian: Symbian is a mobile operating system (OS) targeted at mobile phones that offers a high-level of integration with communication and personal information management (PIM) functionality. Symbian OS combines middleware with wireless communications through an integrated mailbox and the integration of Java and PIM functionality (agenda and contacts). The Symbian OS is open for third-party development by independent software vendors, enterprise IT departments, network operators and Symbian OS licensees.
LANGUAGE PROCESSORS: Since a computer hardware is capable of understanding only machine level instructions, So it is necessary to convert the HLL into Machine Level Language. There are three Language processors:
A. Compiler: It is translator which coverts the HLL language into machine language in one go. A Source program in High Level Language get converted into Object Program in Machine Level Language.
B. Interpreter: It is a translator which converts the HLL language into machine language line by line. It takes one statement of HLL and converts it into machine code which is immediately executed. It eliminate the need of separate compilation/run. However, It is slow in processing as compare to compiler.
C. Assembler: It translate the assembly language into machine code.

Microprocessor:
A microprocessor is a semiconductor chip, which is manufactured using the Large Scale integration (LSI) or Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), which comprises Arithmetic Logic Unit, Control unit and Central Processing Unit (CPU) fabricated on a single chip.

Terminologies:
Registers: A register is a very small amount of very fast memory that is built into the CPU (central processing unit) in order to speed up its operations by providing quick access to commonly used values. All data must be represented in a register before it can be processed. For example, if two numbers are to be multiplied, both numbers must be in registers, and the result is also placed in a register.

Bus:
A collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another. You can think of a bus as a highway on which data travels within a computer. When used in reference to personal computers, the term bus usually refers to internal bus. This is a bus that connects all the internal computer components to the CPU and main memory. All buses consist of two parts — an address bus and a data bus. The data bus transfers actual data whereas the address bus transfers information about where the data should go. The control bus is used by the CPU to direct and monitor the actions of the other functional areas of the computer. It is used to transmit a variety of individual signals (read, write, interrupt, acknowledge, and so forth) necessary to control and coordinate the operations of the computer.

The size of a bus, known as its width, is important because it determines how much data can be transmitted at one time. For example, a 16-bit bus can transmit 16 bits of data, whereas a 32-bit bus can transmit 32 bits

Clock speed: Also called clock rate, the speed at which a microprocessor executes instructions. Every computer contains an internal clock that regulates the rate at which instructions are executed and synchronizes all the various computer components. The CPU requires a fixed number of clock ticks (or clock cycles) to execute each instruction. The faster the clock, the more instructions the CPU can execute per second.
Clock speeds are expressed in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz ((GHz).
16 bit Microprocessor: It indicates the width of the registers. A 16-bit microprocessor can process data and memory addresses that are represented by 16 bits. Eg. 8086 processor
32 bit Microprocessor: It indicates the width of the registers. A 32-bit microprocessor can process data and memory addresses that are represented by 32 bits. Eg. Intel 80386 processor, Intel 80486
64 bit Microprocessor: It indicates the width of the registers; a special high-speed storage area within the CPU. A 32-bit microprocessor can process data and memory addresses that are represented by 32 bits. Eg. Pentium dual core, core 2 duo.
128 bit Microprocessor: It indicates the width of the registers. A 128-bit microprocessor can process data and memory addresses that are represented by 128 bits. Eg. Intel core i7

Difference between RISC & CISC architecture

RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing):
1. RISC sytem has reduced number of instructions.
2. Performs only basic functions.
3. All HLL support is done in software.
4. All operations are register to register.

CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing):
1. A large and varied instruction set.
2. Performs basic as well as complex functions.
3. All HLL support is done in Hardware.
4. Memory to memory addressing mode

EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing):

It is a 64-bit microprocessor instruction set, jointly defined and designed by Hewlett Packard and Intel, that provides up to 128 general and floating point unit registers and uses speculative loading, predication, and explicit parallelism to accomplish its computing tasks. By comparison, current 32-bit CISC and RISC microprocessor architectures depend on 32-bit registers, branch prediction, memory latency, and implicit parallelism, which are considered a less efficient approach in microarchitecture design.

PORTS: A port is an interface between the motherboard and an external device. Different types of port are available on motherboard as serial port, parallel port, PS/2 port, USB port, SCSI port etc.

Serial port(COM Port): A serial port transmit data one bit at a time. Typically on older PCs, a modem, mouse, or keyboard would be connected via serial ports. Serial cables are cheaper to make than parallel cables and easier to shield from interference. Also called communication port.
Parallel Port (LPT ports): It supports parallel communication i.e. it can send several bits simultaneously.It provides much higher data transfer speed in comparison with serial port. Also called Line Printer Port.

USB (Universal Serial Bus): It is a newer type of serial connection that is much faster than the old serial ports. USB is also much smarter and more versatile since it allows the “daisy chaining” of up to 127 USB peripherals connected to one port. It provides plug & play communication.

PS/2 Port : PS/2 ports are special ports for connecting the keyboard and mouse to some PC systems. This type of port was invented by IBM

FireWire Port : The IEEE 1394 interface, developed in late 1980s and early 1990s by Apple as FireWire, is a serial bus interface standard for high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data transfer. The 1394 interface is comparable with USB and often those two technologies are considered together, though USB has more market share.

Infrared Port: An IR port is a port which sends and receives infrared signals from other devices. It is a wireless type port with a limited range of 5-10ft.
Bluetooth: Bluetooth uses short-range radio frequencies to transmit information from fixed and mobile devices. These devices must be within the range of 32 feet, or 10 meters for Bluetooth to effectively work. A Bluetooth port enables connections for Bluetooth-enabled devices for synchronizing. Typically there are two types of ports: incoming and outgoing. The incoming port enables the device to receive connections from Bluetooth devices while the outgoing port makes connections to Bluetooth devices.
Internal Storage encoding of Characters:

ASCII( American standard code for information interchange): ASCII code is most widely used alphanumeric code used in computers. It is a 7- bit code, and so it has 27 =128 possible code groups. It represents all of the standard keyboard characters as well as control functions such as Return & Linefeed functions.

ISCII(American standard code for information interchange) : To use the Indian language on computers, ISCII codes are used. It is an 8-bit code capable of coding 256 characters. ISCII code retains all ASCII characters and offers coding for Indian scripts also.

Unicode: It is a universal coding standard which provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language. Unicode version 3.1 represented 94,140 characters.

NUMBER SYSTEM:

A. Decimal Number System:
Decimal Number system composed of 10 numerals or symbols. These numerals are 0 to 9. Using these symbols as digits we can express any quantity. It is also called base-10 system. It is a positional value system in which the value of a digit depends on its position.

These digits can represent any value, for example:
754.
The value is formed by the sum of each digit, multiplied by the base (in this case it is 10 because there are 10 digits in decimal system) in power of digit position (counting from zero):

Decimal numbers would be written like this:
12710 1110 567310

B. Binary Number System:
In Binary Number system there are only two digits i.e. 0 or 1. It is base-2 system. It can be used to represent any quantity that can be represented in decimal or other number system. It is a positional value system, where each binary digit has its own value or weight expressed as power of 2.

The following are some examples of binary numbers:
1011012 112 101102

Conversion from Decimal to Binary or Binary to Decimal
Convert from decimal to binary Χ(10)->Χ(2)
Integer
45(10)->Χ(2)
Div Quotient Remainder Binary Number (Χ)
45 / 2 22 1 1
22 / 2 11 0 01
11 / 2 5 1 101
5 / 2 2 1 1101
2 / 2 1 0 01101
1 / 2 0 1 101101
45(10)->101101(2)
Fractional Part
0.182(10)->Χ(2)
Div Product Integer value Binary Number (Χ)
0.182 * 2 0.364 0 0.0
0.364 * 2 0.728 0 0.00
0.728 * 2 1.456 1 0.001
0.456 * 2 0.912 0 0.0010
0.912 * 2 1.824 1 0.00101
0.824 * 2 1.648 1 0.001011
0.648 * 2 1.296 1 0.0010111
0.182(10)->0.0010111(2) (After we round and cut the number)

Conversion from Binary to Decimal
Convert from binary to decimal Χ(2)->Χ(10)
101101.0010111(2)->Χ(10)
Index the digits of the number
150413120110.0-10-21-30-41-51-61-7
Multiply each digit
1 * 25 + 0 * 24 + 1 * 23 + 1 * 22 + 0 * 21 + 1 * 20 + 0 * 2-1 + 0 * 2-2 + 1 * 2-3 + 0 * 2-4 + 1 * 2-5 + 1 * 2-6 + 1 * 2-7 =
32 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 0 + 0.125 + 0 + 0.03125 + 0.015625 + 0.007813
= 45.179688(10)
C. Octal Number System:
It has eight unique symbols i.e. 0 to 7. It has base of 8. Each octal digit has its own value or weight expressed as a power of 8.

D. Hexadecimal Number System:
The hexadecimal system uses base 16. It has 16 possible digit symbols. It uses the digits 0 through 9 plus the letters A,B,C,D,E,F as 16 digit symbols. Each hexadecimal digit has its own value or weight expressed as a power of 16.

Table to remember
Decimal Binary Hexadecimal Octal
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16 0
1
10
11
100
101
110
111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
10000 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
10 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
20

Convert from decimal to octal Χ(10)->Χ(8)
Integer
45(10)->X(8)
Div Quotient Remainder Octal Number (Χ)
45 / 8 5 5 5
5 / 8 0 5 55
45(10)->55(8)
Fractional Part
0.182(10)->Χ(8)
Mul Product Integer Binary Number (Χ)
0.182 * 8 1.456 1 0.1
0.456 * 8 3.648 3 0.13
0.648 * 8 5.184 5 0.135
0.184 * 8 1.472 1 0.1351
0.472 * 8 3.776 3 0.13513
0.776 * 8 6.208 6 0.135136
0.182(10)->0.135136(8) (After we round and cut the number)
Convert from decimal to hexadecimal Χ(10)->Χ(16)
Integer
45(10)->X(16)
Div Quotient Remainder Hex Number (Χ)
45 / 16 2 13 D (Since 13 decimal is D in hexadecimal)
2 / 16 0 2 2D (See the table)
45(10)->2D(16)
Fractional Number
0.182(10)->Χ(16)
Mul Product Integer Binary Number (Χ)
0.182 * 16 2.912 2 0.2
0.912 * 16 14.592 14 0.2Ε
0.592 * 16 9.472 9 0.2Ε9
0.472 * 16 7.552 7 0.2Ε97
0.552 * 16 8.832 8 0.2Ε978
0.832 * 16 13.312 13 0.2Ε978D
0.182(10)->0.2E978D(16) (After we round and cut the number)
Convert from octal to decimal Χ(8)->Χ(10)
55.135136(8)->Χ(10)
Index the digits of the number
5150.1-13-25-31-43-56-6
We multiply each digit
5 * 81 + 5 * 80 + 1 * 8-1 + 3 * 8-2 + 5 * 8-3 + 1 * 8-4 + 3 * 8-5 + 6 * 8-6 =
40 + 5 + 0.125 + 0.03125 + 0.009766 + 0.000244 + 0.0001 + 0.0000229
= 45.1663829(10)
Convert from hexadecimal to decimal Χ(16)->Χ(10)
2D.2E978D(16)->Χ(10)
Index the digits of the number
21130.2-114-29-37-48-513-6
We multiply each digit
2 * 161 + 13 * 160 + 2 * 16-1 + 14 * 16-2 + 9 * 16-3 + 7 * 16-4 + 8 * 16-5 + 13 * 16-6 =
32 + 13 + 0.125 + 0.0546875 + 0.00219727 + 0.00010681 + 0.00000762 + 0.00000077
= 45.18199997(10)
Convert from binary to octal: For this conversion make the group of three digits from right to left before decimal & left to right after decimal then assign the specific octal value. (Given in the table above)
110101000.101010(2)->X(8)
| 3 | | 3 | | 3 | | 3 | | 3 |
110 101 000 .101 010
|| || || || ||
\/ \/ \/ \/ \/
6 5 0 . 5 2 (See that in the array 110(2) corresponds to 6(8) )
110101000.101010(2)->650.52(8)
Convert from binary to hexadecimal: This conversion make the group of four digits from right to left before decimal & left to right after decimal then assign the specific Hexadecimal value. (Given in the table above)
110101000.101010(2)->X(16)
| 4 | | 4 | | 4 | | 4 | | 4 |
0001 1010 1000 .1010 1000
|| || || || ||
\/ \/ \/ \/ \/
1 Α 8 . Α 8
110101000(2)->1Α8.Α8(16)
Convert from hexadecimal to octal and binary: In this conversion write the binary of specific digit. For Octal three digit binary & for Hexadecimal four digit binary.
Convert from octal to binary
650.52(8)->X(2)
6 5 0 . 5 2
|| || || || ||
\/ \/ \/ \/ \/
110 101 000 . 101 010
650.52(8)->110101000.101010(2)
Convert from hexadecimal to binary
1Α8.Α8(16)->X(2)
1 Α 8 . Α 8
|| || || || ||
\/ \/ \/ \/ \/
0001 1010 1000 .1010 1000
Practice Session:
1. Which electronic device invention brought revolution in earlier computers?
Ans. Microprocessor
2. Which memory is responsible for booting of system.
Ans. ROM
3. Where do you find analog computers in daily life?
Ans. In Bike-speedometer, voltmeter
4. What do you mean by term firmware?
Ans. Software (programs or data) that has been written onto read-only memory (ROM). Firmware is a combination of software and hardware. ROMs, PROMs and EPROMs that have data or programs recorded on them are Firmware.
5. What do you mean by language processors? Why we need it? (Do yourself)
6. Give any example of hybrid computer in daily life.
Ans. In medical science- To measure the heart beat, blood pressure etc.
7. Can we think of a computer system without operating system? Justify your answer. (Do yourself)
8. Fifth generation of computer is a symbol of intelligence. Why?
Ans. Due to invention of robotics
9. Which is better for translator & why? Compiler or Interpreter. (Do yourself)
10. What do you mean by Defragmentation? (Do yourself)
11. What do you mean by RISC & CISC? (Do yourself)
12. Which port a mouse should be connected?
Ans. PS/2 port

13. What do you mean by LPT port?
Ans. Line Print Terminal

14. What is difference between USB & Firewire Port?
Ans. USB is host based, mean device must connect to computer while Firewire is peer-to-peer. Firewire is sought for high speed devices with more data like camcorders.

15. What is cache memory? (Do yourself)
16. Convert the followings:
i. 101001.0101 to decimal
ii. (236)8 to Binary
iii. (266)10 to Hexadecimal
iv. (AF2)16 to Binary
v. 0101110.1010110 to Hexadecimal

UNIT-2
Introduction to C++
C++ CHARACTER SET
Character set is asset of valid characters that a language can recognize . A character can represents any letter, digit, or any other sign . Following are some of the C++ character set.
LETTERS A to Z and a to z
DIGITS 0 -9
SPECIAL SYMBOLS + -* ^ \ [] {} = != < > . ‘ ‘ ; : & #
WHITE SPACE Blankl space , horizontal tab ( – > ), carriage return , Newline, Form feed.
OTHER CHARACTERS 256 ASCII characters as data or as literals.

TOKENS:
The smallest lexical unit in a program is known as token. A token can be any keyword,Identifier,Literals, Puncutators, Operators.

KEYWORDS :
These are the reserved words used by the compiler. Following are some of the Keywords.
auto continue float new signed volatile
short long class struct else inline
delete friend private typedef void template
catch friend sizeof union register goto

IDENTIFIERS:
An arbitrary name consisting of letters and digits to identify a particular word.C++ is case sensitive as nit treats upper and lower case letters differently. The first character must be a letter . the underscore counts as a letter
Pen time580 s2e2r3 _dos _HJI3_JK

LITERALS:
The data items which never change their value throughout the program run. There are several kind of literals:
• Integer constant
• Character constant
• Floating constant
• String constant.

Integer constant :
Integer constant are whole numbers without any fractional part. An integer constant must have at least one digit and must not contain any decimal point. It may contain either + or _. A number with no sign is assumed as positive.
e.g 15, 1300, -58795.
Character Constant:
A character constant is single character which is enclosed within single quotation marks.
e.g ‘ A’
Floating constant:
Numbers which are having the fractional part are referred as floating numbers or real constants. it may be a positive or negative number. A number with no sign is assumed to be a positive number.
e.g 2.0, 17.5, -0.00256
String Literals:
It is a sequence of letters surrounded by double quotes. E.g “abc”.

PUNCTUATORS:
The following characters are used as punctuators which are also know as separators in C++
[ ] { } ( ) , ; : * ……….. = #
Puntuator Name Function
[] Brackets These indicates single and multidimensional array subscripts
() Parenthesis These indicate function calls and function parameters.
[ ] Braces Indicate the start and end of compound statements.
; Semicolon This is a statement terminator.
: Colon It indicates a labeled statement
* Asterisk It is used as a pointer declaration
… Ellipsis These are udes in the formal argument lists of unction prototype to indicate a variable number of arguments.
= Equal to It is used as an assigning operator.
# Pound sign This is used as preprocessor directives.

OPERATORS:
These are those lexical units that trigger some computation when applied to variables and other objects in an expression. Following are some operators used in C++
Unary operators: Those which require only one operand to trigger. e.g. & , + , ++ , — ! .
Binary operators: these require two operands to operate upon. Following are some of the Binary operators.
Arithmatic operators :
+ Addition
_ substraction
A* Multiplication
/ Division
% Remainder.

Logical Operators :

&& – logical AND || – Logical OR
Relational Operator:
< less than a> Greater than
<= Less than equal to. >= greater than equal to.
== equal to.
!= not equal to.

Conditional operator: ? (question ) : ( colon )

Assignment Operator:
= assignment operator
*= Assign Product.
/= Assign quotient
%= assign Remainder
&= Assign bitwise AND
^= Assign bitwise XOR.
|=Assign bitwise OR

Conditional operator ( ? )
The conditional operator evaluates an expression returning a value if that expression is true and a different one if the expression is evaluated as false. Its format is:

condition ? result1 : result2
e.g 7==5 ? 4 : 3 // returns 3, since 7 is not equal to 5.
Comma operator ( , )
The comma operator (,) is used to separate two or more expressions that are included where only one expression is expected. When the set of expressions has to be evaluated for a value, only the rightmost expression is considered.

For example, the following code:
a = (b =3 , b +2 );

Would first assign the value 3 to b, and then assign b+2 to variable a. So, at the end, variable a would contain the value 5 while variable b would contain value 3.
Explicit type casting operator
Type casting operators allow you to convert a datum of a given type to another. There are several ways to do this in C++. The simplest one, which has been inherited from the C language, is to precede the expression to be converted by the
new type enclosed between parentheses ( ) :

int i;
float f =3014;
i = ( int ) f;
The previous code converts the float number 3.14 to an integer value (3), the remainder is lost. Here, the typecasting operator was (int). Another way to do the same thing in C++ is using the functional notation: preceding the expression to be converted by the type and enclosing the expression between parentheses:
i = int (f );

Both ways of type casting are valid in C++.
sizeof()
This operator accepts one parameter, which can be either a type or a variable itself and returns the size in bytes of that type or object:
a= sizeof (char);

This will assign the value 1 to a because char is a one-byte long type.
The value returned by sizeof is a constant, so it is always determined before program execution.

Input Output (I/O) In C++

The cout Object:
The cout object sends to the standard output device. cout sends all out put to the screen i.e monitor.
The syntax of cout is as follows:
cout<< data;. e.g cout<< a ; ( here a can be any variable) The cin operator : The cin operator is used to get input from the keyboard. When a program reaches the line with cin, the user at the keyboard can enter values directly into variables. The syntax of cin is as follows: cin>> variablename
e.g
cin>> ch; ( here ch can be any variable)

• Basic structure of a C++ program:
Following is the structure of a C++ program tht prints a string on the screen:
#include
void main ()
{
cout<<” Study material for Class XI”; } The program produces following output: Study material for Class XI The above program includes the basic elements that every C++ program has. Let us check it line by line #include : This line includes the preprocessor directive include which includes the header file iostream in the program.

void main () :this line is the start of compilation for this program. Every C++ programs compilation starts with the main (). void is the keyword used when the function has no return values.

{ : this is the start of the compound block of main ().
cout<<” Study material for class XI”;: this statement prints the sequence of string ” Study material for class XI” into this output stream i..e on monitor. Every statement in the block will be terminated by a semicolon (;) which specifies compiler the end of statement. COMMENTS in a C++ program.: Comments are the line that compiler ignores to compile or execute. There are two types of comments in C++. 1. Single line comment: This type of comment deactivates only that line where comment is applied. Single line comments are applied with the help of “ //” . e.g // cout<
int main ()
{
cout<< “ hello world”; /* this is the program to print hello world For demonstration of comments */ } In the above program the statements between /* and */ will be ignored by the compiler. CASCADING OF OPERATOR: When shift operators ( << and >>) are used more than one time in a single statement then it is called as cascading of operators.
e.g cout<< roll<< age<< endl; DATATYPES IN C++: A datatype is just an interpretation applied to a string of bytes. Data in C++ are of two types: 1.Simple /Fundamental datatypes . 2.Structures/Derived datatypes. Simple /Fundamental data types: When programming, we store the variables in our computer's memory, but the computer has to know what kind of data we want to store in them, since it is not going to occupy the same amount of memory to store a simple number than to store a single letter or a large number, and they are not going to be interpreted the same way. The memory in our computers is organized in bytes. A byte is the minimum amount of memory that we can manage in C++. A byte can store a relatively small amount of data: one single character or a small integer (generally an integer between 0 and 255). In addition, the computer can manipulate more complex data types that come from grouping several bytes, such as long numbers or non-integer numbers. Next you have a summary of the basic fundamental data types in C++, as well as the range of values that can be represented with each one: Name Description Size Range char Character or small integer. 1byte signed: -128 to 127 unsigned: 0 to 255 short int (short) Short Integer. 2bytes signed: -32768 to 32767 unsigned: 0 to 65535 int Integer. 4bytes signed: -2147483648 to 2147483647 unsigned: 0 to 4294967295 long int (long) Long integer. 4bytes signed: -2147483648 to 2147483647 unsigned: 0 to 4294967295 float Floating point number. 4bytes +/- 3.4e +/- 38 (~7 digits) double Double precision floating point number. 8bytes +/- 1.7e +/- 308 (~15 digits) long double Long double precision floating point number. 8bytes +/- 1.7e +/- 308 (~15 digits) Derived Data Types: The datatypes which are extracted / derived from fundamental data types are called derived datatypes. These datatypes can be derived by using the declaration operator or punctuators for e.g Arrays, function, Pointer, Class , Structure, union etc. Class : A class represents a group of similar objects. To represent class in C++ it offers a user defined datatypes called CLASS .Once a Class has been defined in C++, Object belonging to that class can easily be created. A Class bears the same relationship to an object that a type does to a variable. Syntax of CLASS: Class class_name { Private: Data members 1 “ Data members n Member functions 1 “ Member functions n Public: Data members 1 “ Data members n Member functions 1 “ Member functions n };//end of class Class name object of Class; // creating an object of class. Private and Public are the access specifiers to the class. STRUCTURE: A Structure is a collection of variables of different data types referenced under one name .It also may have same data types. The access to structure variables is by default global i.e they can be accessed publicly throughout the program. Syntax of structure. struct structure_name { Structure variable 1; Structure variable n; }; // end of structure Structure_name structure object // creating object variable of structure. e.g struct student { int roll; float marks ; }; Student s; Access to structure variables Structure variable can be accessed by their objects only as shown below structure object_name. variable e.g student . roll here student is the structure and roll is the member of the structure. UNION : A memory location shared between two different variables of different datatypes at different times is know as Union. Defining union is similar as defining the structure. Syntax of Union : union show int i { int I; char ch; }; char ch Union show obj; References: A reference is an alternative name for an object. A reference variable provides an alias for a previously defined variable. A reference declaration consists of base type , an & (ampersand), a reference variable name equated to a variable name .the general syntax form of declaring a reference variable is as follows. Type & ref_variable = variable_name; Where is type is any valid C++ datatype, ref_variable is the name of reference variable that will point to variable denoted by variable_name. e.g int a= 10; int &b= a; then the values of a is 10 and the value of b is also 10; Constant : The keyword const can be added to the declaration of an object to make that object constant rather than a variable. Thus the value named constant can not be altered during the program run. Syntax:- const type name=value; Example:- const int uage=50; // it declares a constant named as uage of type integer that holds value 50. Preprocessor Directives: #include is the preprocessor directive used in C++ programs. This statement tells the compiler to include the specified file into the program. This line is compiled by the processor before the compilation of the program. e.g #include
the above line include the header file iostream into the program for the smooth running of the program.

Compilation and Linking

Compilation refers to the processing of source code files (.c, .cc, or .cpp) and the creation of an ‘object’ file. This step doesn’t create anything the user can actually run. Instead, the compiler merely produces the machine language instructions that correspond to the source code file that was compiled. For instance, if you compile (but don’t link) three separate files, you will have three object files created as output, each with the name .o or .obj (the extension will depend on your compiler). Each of these files contains a translation of your source code file into a machine language file — but you can’t run them yet! You need to turn them into executables your operating system can use. That’s where the linker comes in.
Linking refers to the creation of a single executable file from multiple object files. In this step, it is common that the linker will complain about undefined functions (commonly, main itself). During compilation, if the compiler could not find the definition for a particular function, it would just assume that the function was defined in another file. If this isn’t the case, there’s no way the compiler would know — it doesn’t look at the contents of more than one file at a time. The linker, on the other hand, may look at multiple files and try to find references for the functions that weren’t mentioned.
ERRORS:
There are many types of error that are encountered during the program run. following are some of them:
1. Compiler error.: The errors encountered during the compilation process are called Compiler error. Compiler error are of two types
• Syntax error.
• Semantic error.

Syntax Error: Syntax error is the one which appears when we commit any grammatical mistakes. These are the common error and can be easily corrected. These are produced when we translate the source code from high level language to machine language.
e.g cot<>a>>b>>c;

3. Write the values for a and b in one line, followed by value of c after two balnk lines.
Ans: cout>”) is used to read a value from standard input.
16. What will be the output of following code:
void main()
{
int j=5;
cout<<++j<
void main( )
{

int a = 0 , b = 0 ;
cout<<”Input two numbers”; cin>> a>>b;
cout<<”The sum of numbers are: ” << (a+b); } The above program is a very basic program which asks two integer values from user and prints out their sum. In the above program you may observe that various programming elements like: # < ( ) { = , a b << >> int void main “Input two numbers “ ;
are being used.

Work out yourself :

Identify each of the above programming elements and
write its name using a table

Students the program above is very simple to be thought , written and executed, but in real industrial programming situation we seldom get such programs to write. There are many complex situation in life where we often need to write programs using few advanced programming elements. Let us investigate few of the real life situations :

a) Ram needs to find out whether any number is divisible by both 3 and 5.

b) A shopkeeper wants to give x % discount on a particular purchase only when the net
purchase by his customer exceeds Rs. 1000

c) A teacher wants to calculate the average marks for each of his 40 pupils in a class.

d) Suresh wants to continue his program till he is pressing escape button on keyboard.

Can you program the above programming problems using the programming elements of C++ which you have learn till now ?

Your answer would be probably a NO , because the C++ programming elements which you have studied till now , will only enable you to write simple linear programs , or sequential programs.

1.1.2: Linear Flow

A simple linear program is one which has a linear flow of execution of programming logic /statements. e.g. program 1.1. The logic of program flows ( or better they are termed as control flow) from top to bottom out of set of statements.

Now let us proof the that program 1.1 follows a sequential flow of logic by the following flow chart diagram :

flowchart : 1

So easy isn’t it ? As you observe that the arrows are moving in one direction only from top to bottom , the flow of program is sequential / linear.

Work out yourself :

Identify few of the programs which you have written while dealing
Unit-3 and find whether they are following sequential flow of
program? If yes can you make a flow chart to justify your idea.

So there exist a big question now that whether C++ programs have other types of flow of program which is totally different from linear flow. Yes , students we also have other types of flow of program.

Conditional Flow

Let us investigate the real life problems visited by us earlier in this chapter :

a) Ram needs to find out whether a number is divisible by both 3 and 5

We will represent the above problem in flow chart notation :

flowchart – 2
Path2 Path-3

No
Path -1

Yes

No

Yes

Observe the above flowchart-2 and compare it with the earlier flowchart – 1 and then answer the following questions :

i ) Are arrows in the flowchart (which represent flow) emerging and proceeding in one
direction in both flowcharts ? [Yes / No].

ii) If answer to the first question is No then why not ?

iii) Let us call the flow of arrows in a particular direction a Path then how many such paths you
observe in first flowchart and that in second one ?

iv) In flowchart – 2 we have used rhombus. What is its significance in whole flowchart?

So going through the questions above and answering them yourself you find that in the second flowchart is different from the first one in following respect :

1) The direction of arrows in second flowchart is not always linear, sometime the direction
of the flow takes turns at the junction of a rhombus. (there are two such such turnings)

2) At each rhombus junction the flow decides which way to proceed after asking a logical
statement ( e.g n is divisible by 3) , thus creating several paths following which the
program logic can flow. In our flowchart -1 there is no such branching of paths is
observed, but in case of flowchart-2 we may observe two branching where from a
program can flow through to reach end and terminate itself.

So we may now emphasize that a program not only have a linear flow but it can also have a branched flow as observed in flowchart- 2. Each of these branches can be interpreted as one execution path of the same program. Hence we can say that in real world, there exist some programming situation which needs branched flow of program instructions, or in simple terms we may say that the program demands several paths of execution.

Thus,

A program having multiple paths of execution, where each path leads to different
type of completion states, are categorized as Conditional Programs. The selection of
paths of execution depends upon a logical decision being made (look at the rhombuses)

When we consider our problem then it is seen that a number when it is satisfying both the logical conditions at two rhombuses ends up with a result that it is divisible by both values 3 and 5( execution path -1 ) whereas if it not satisfying either of the two logical conditions placed at two rhombuses then the program ends up with another result showing it is not divisible by both of them together. Satisfying any one of the logical condition would not solve our purpose as we are expecting a logical AND ( &&).

Now let us convert the above flowchart -2 in a C++ program. You may not understand all the parts of programs here, so don’t worry it will be described in the later part of the chapter.

Program – 1.2

// program to implement the problem described by flowchart-2

#include
void main( )
{
int num = 0 ; // declaring a variable num

cout<<”Input the number you want to check” ; cin>>num; // Inputting value of n

if ( n % 3 == 0 ) // checking whether n is divisible by 3 , consider the first rhombus of
{ the flowchart-2
if (n% 5 == 0 ) // checking whether n is divisible by 5 , consider the second rhombus
{ // of flowchart-2

cout<<”The number you inputted is divisible by both 3 and 5” ; // path1 } else cout<<”The number you inputted is not divisible both by 3 and 5”; // path2 } else cout<<”The number you inputted is not divisible both by 3 and 5”; // path2 } The shaded part of the above program shows how a conditional branching is implemented with an if ( )- else construct of C++. Workout yourself : Draw flowcharts for problem situation b) given earlier in page no. 4, and then find whether the problem follows a linear flow or conditional flow ? Check it out with you teacher. 1.1.3 : Iterative Flow / Cyclic Flow : Now let us solve the problem situation c) given in page 4 with the help of a flowchart . i.e A teacher wants to calculate the average marks for each of his 40 pupils in a class. Let us assume that the teacher maintains count of his/her students in a variable say n. Let the teacher starts n from 1st student i.e n = 1 Let there are marks in five subjects say s1 , s2 , s3 , s4 and s5 and Avg as Average We must remember that this problem demands calculation of average marks of each student, i.e Average marks for each of the individual 40 students would be calculated and displayed. Flowchart - 3 No Yes Observe the above flowchart-3 and compare it with flowchart-2 given earlier. Try to answer the following question : a) Are directions of arrows in both flowchart 2 and 3 are always pointing downwards ? [Yes / No] b) If your answer to the above question a) is in No then what are other directions in which arrows proceeds? [ choose from : Leftwards , Rightwards , Upwards , all of them] c) In which flowchart the arrow proceeded upwards and Why ? Verify your answer with your teacher. Sometime according to special problem situation we find that in a program we proceed to a same statement / step again , which we have visited earlier during flow of program. Observing flowchart – 2 we find that we never proceed to a step twice. In case of flowchart-3 we observe that steps after the rhombus are repeated if logic in rhombus produces a Yes value (you may see that an arrow moves upwards to the rhombus). A cycle is formed between the Rhombus and steps after it, based on the Yes value of the logic ( n <= 40 ?) kept in rhombus. This cyclic path of execution is referred as an Iteration in C++ programming jargon. Workout yourself : i) How many times the program proceeds in a Cyclic path in the flowchart- 3. Why ? When does this cyclic path of execution ends in the flowchart-3. ii) What will happen if the cyclic path of execution never gets ended? The cyclic path of execution or Iteration in problem represented by flowchart-3 ends based on the No value of the logic ( n <= 40 ?) kept in rhombus. This No will be generated when n will become anything greater than 40. Now let us convert the above flowchart -3 in a C++ program. You may not understand all the parts of programs here, so don't worry it will be described in the later part of the chapter. Program – 1.3 // program to implement the problem described by flowchart-2 #include
void main( )
{
int n = 1 ; // declaring a variable n to keep count of students
int s1 = s2=s3=s4=s5=0; // declaring subject marks and initializing them with 0
float Avg = 0.0 ; // declaring variable for keeping Average of student’s marks
cout<<”Input the number you want to check” ; cin>>num; // Inputting value of n

while ( n <= 40 ) // Iteration starts here { cout<<”Input values for s1 , s2 , s3 , s4 and s5” ; // path1 cin>>s1>>s2>>s3>>s4>>s5 ;
Avg = (s1+ s2 + s3 + s4 + s5) / 5 ;

cout<<”\nThe average marks scored by student no.” <)
{
// statements to be executed when logical statement is satisfied
// i.e. when the logical statement yields a true value
}

points to remember :
i) a logical statement always evaluates as true / false.
ii) any value in C++ other than zero ( positive / negative) is considered to be true whereas a zero (0 ) is considered to be false.
iii) < > in syntax is known as a place holder, do not type it while writing program. It only
signifies that any thing being kept there varies from program to program.
iv) if there exists only one line of program statement under if( ) scope then we may ommit
curly braces { }

The statement kept under simple if ( ) gets executed only when the conditional expression/logical statement under it is evaluated as true.

Examples :
int x = 1 , y = 3;
x += y;
if ( x > y )
{
cout<<”x is greater”; } In the above example the conditional statement under if ( ) will be always evaluated as true because the value of x will become 4 before the comparison thus the expression 4 > 3 yields a true
value letting the statement under if( ) to execute i.e. the output of the above code snippet would be
“ x is greater ”

Workout yourself :

2.1.2 : Compound If ( ) : if – else combination

syntax :
if ( < conditional statement > )
{
// statements to be executed when logical statement is satisfied
// i.e. when the logical statement yields a true value
}
else
{
// statements to be executed when logical statement is not satisfied
// i.e. when the logical statement yields a false value
}

Example :
int x = 0 , y = 3;
x += y;
if ( x > y )
{
cout<<”x is greater”; } else { cout<<”we are in else part because x and y both became equal.”; } The above code snippet (portion ) has two different paths of execution. If the conditional statement under if( ) is evaluated to be true then the statement under if ( ) block will be executed otherwise the statements under else block would be executed. The above code produces an output as “we are in else part because x and y both became equal.” because the conditional statement under if ( ) evaluates as false as x is not greater than y, it is same as that of y. Workout yourself : In the above code snippet modify the logical statement under if ( ) such that the if ( ) block gets executed instead of else( ) block. You should not modify the initial values of x and y or change number of variables in the program. 2.1.3 : Complex If ( ) : if – else ladder syntax : if ( )
{
// do something if condition-1 is satisfied
}
else if ( )
{
// do something if condition -2 is satisfied
}
else if ()
{
// do something if condition- 3 is satisfied
}
:
: // many more n-1 else – if ladder may come
:
else if( < condition – n >)
{
// do something if condition – n is satisfied
}
else
{
// at last do here something when none of the above else-if( )
//conditions gets satisfied.
}

In the above syntax there are ladder of multiple conditions presented by each if( ) , all of these conditions are mutually exclusive that is only one of them would get satisfied and all the conditions below it would not be evaluated and is discarded.

Say suppose if condition-3 gets satisfy i.e. it yields a true value for the condition, the statement under the block of third if( ) gets executed and all other n number of if( ) conditions below it would be discarded.

If none of the n if ( ) conditions gets satisfied then the last else part always gets executed. It is not compulsory to add an else at the last of the ladder.

Example :
char ch = getch( );
if ( ch >= ‘a’ && ch <= 'z' ) { cout<<”you have inputted a lowercase alphabet”; } else if ( ch >= ‘A’ && ch <= 'Z' ) { cout<<”you have inputted an uppercase alphabet”; } else if ( ch > ‘0’ && ch <= '9' ) { cout<<”you have inputted a digit”; } else { cout<<”you have inputted any special character or symbol”; } In above code snippet a character is being inputted from user and is being checked upon by various if ( ) condition as alphabets, digit or any other special symbol. If the first condition gets satisfied then the character inputted is a lower case alphabet, if not then the second if ( ) is evaluated , if the second if( ) gets satisfied then the character is an upper case alphabet, if not then the third if ( ) is being evaluated , if it is satisfied then the character is a digit if not then finally it is inferred as any other symbol in the last else( ) . The benefit of this type of conditioning statement is that we can have multiple conditions instead of just having one or two as seen in case of earlier if( ) constructs. Workout yourself : A date in the format of dd/mm/yyyy when dd, mm, and yyyy are inputted separately is said to be a valid date if it is found in a particular year's calendar. For example 22/12/2012, 29/02/2012 are valid dates in calendar of 2012, but 31/06/2012 or 30/02/2012 are invalid dates in calendar of 2012. Find out how many ladders of if( ) conditions would be required to write a program for checking validity of a date. Discuss your answer with your teacher. 2.1.4 : Nested if-else You might have seen a crow's nest or any other bird's nest , the materials being used to build the nest are enclosed within one another to give ample support to the nest. We also have the same concept of nesting of constructs within one another , to give ample strength to our program in terms of robustness , flexibility and adaptability (these terms you have learned in Unit -3 earlier. ) We are now considering nesting of an if ( ) construct within another if ( ) construct i.e one if( ) is enclosed within the scope of another if( ). The construct thus formed is called nested if( ). Let me show you few of the syntax forms of nested if( ) : Syntaxes: Simple if ( ) nested within scope of another simple if ( ) if ( )
{
if ( )
{

//some statements to be executed
// on satisfaction of inner if ( ) condition.

} // end of scope of inner if( )

//some statements to be executed
// on satisfaction of outer if ( ) condition.

} // end of the scope of outer if( )

compound if ( ) nested within scope of another compound if ( )

if ( )
{
if ( )
{

//some statements to be executed
// on satisfaction of inner if ( ) condition.

}
else
{
// statements on failure of inner if( )
}

//some statements to be executed
// on satisfaction of outer if ( ) condition.

}
else
{

// statements on failure of outer if( )
}

Ladder if-else-if ( ) nested within scope of another ladder if-else-if ( )

if ( )
{
if ( )
{

//some statements to be executed
// on satisfaction of inner if ( ) condition.

}
else if ( )
{
// statements on failure of inner if( )
}
else
{
// last statement of the inner ladder if-else-if
}
//some statements to be executed
// on satisfaction of outer if ( ) condition.

}
else if ( )
{

// statements on failure of outer if( )
}

Like this you may try to keep any type if( ) construct within the scope of other type of if ( ) construct as desired by the flow of logic of that program.
Workout yourself:

I ) Try to nest simple if ( ) upto 4 levels ii) Try to nest complex if within a compound if ( )
iii) Try to nest three simple if ( ) within another simple if( )

let us now explore few example programs using various if( ) constructs :

program 2.1

// program to compare three integer values to find highest out of them

#include
void main( )
{
int n1= n2 = n3 = 0;
cout<<”Input three integers”; if( n1 > n2 && n1 > n3)
cout<n1 && n2 > n3)
cout<< n2 << “ is the highest value”; else if ( n3 > n1 && n3 > n2 )
cout<< n3 << “is the highest value”; else cout<< “all values are equal”; } Explanation : Lets parse the logic of the above code (shaded area) to understand it using a dry run : Case – I let us assume that the value of n1 = 1 , n2 = 5 and n3 = -7 evaluation of the first if( ) in the ladder : if( n1 > n2 && n1 > n3 )
==> if( 1 > 5 && 1 > -7 )
==> if ( false && true )
==> if( false ) // as per truth table of logical and ( && ) operator

since the first condition is evaluated as false so the next condition in the ladder would be evaluated

if( n2 > n1 && n2 > n3 )
==> if ( 5 > 1 && 5 > -7 )
==> if ( true && true )
==> if(true) // as per truth table of logical and ( && ) operator

since the second logic is evaluated as true, it open the block of second if( ) and the statements under the second else-if ( ) block gets executed and an output is printed on the console as :
“5 is highest value”

Workout yourself :

I) Try to execute the above program 2.1 using dry run method with values n1 = 1 , n2 = 1 and
n3 = 1
ii) Try to implement the above program using any other type of if( ) construct

program 2.2

// program to find whether a 4 digit inputted year is a leap year

#include
void main( )
{
int year = 0 ;
cout<<”Input a 4 digit year” cin>> year;

if ( year % 4 == 0 )
{
if ( year % 100 == 0 )
{
if( year % 400 == 0)
{
cout<< “Year : “ << year <<” is a leap year”; } else { cout<<”Year : “<< year << “ is not a leap year”; } } else { cout<<“Year : “ << year <<” is a leap year”; } } else { cout<<”Year : “<< year << “ is not a leap year”; } } // end of main ( ) The above program is a very good example showing the use of nesting of if( ). Explanation: Let us first understand which year would be called leap year , a leap is a year which : i ) is divisible by 4 but not divisible by 100 ii) is divisible by 4 as well as divisible by 100 and at the same time divisible by 400 Any other criteria will make the year as a non-leap year candidate. Dry Run -1 Let us parse the gray area code of the above program with a dry run having year = 1994 if( 1994 % 4 == 0) ==> if ( 2 == 0 )
==> if ( false )
Since the first if condition is not satisfied the flow of the program proceeds to its else block and prints the output as “ Year : 1994 is not a leap year”

Dry Run – 2 :

Let us parse the gray area code of the above program with a dry run having year = 2000

if( 2000 % 4 == 0)
==> if ( 0 == 0 )
==> if ( true )

Since the first condition evaluates out to be true it opens up its block and the next statement in the inner block gets executed as :

==> if (2000 % 100 == 0)
==> if ( 0 == 0 )
==> if ( true )
Since the first nested if ( ) condition evaluates out to be true it opens up its block and the next statement in the inner block is continues as :

==> if( 2000 % 400 == 0)
==> if ( 0 == 0 )
==> if ( true )
Since the second nested if ( ) condition evaluates out to be true it opens up its block and the next statement in the inner block is continues to print output on console as :

“Year : 2000 is a leap year”
Workout yourself:

i) Google out to find that whether year 1900 was a leap year or not and then verify it using a
dry run with the help of above program.
ii) Try to implement the above code without using nested if ( ) construct.

Check your progress:

1. Find error in code below and explain.
#include

void main()

{

int x = 5 ;

if( x > 5 )

{

x += 5;

int y = 8;

}

y += x;

}

2. Find the output of the code below :

void main( )
{
int NoOfGirls = 4;
int NoOfBoys = 10 ;

if ( NoOfBoys = 8 && NoOfGirls <= NoOfBoys ) cout<<”Great achievement”; else cout<<”Greater achievement”; } 3. Find the output of the code below : void main( ) { int circle = 5 , rectangle = 0 , square = 4 , triangle = 0 ; if( circle) { if( rectangle || square ) { cout<<”Draw diagram”; } else if( ! rectangle && ! square ) { cout<<”Invalid diagram”; } else { if( circle == rectangle || square == triangle ) { cout<<”Canvas Available”; } } } cout<<”Invisible diagram”; } 4. Find the output of code below: void main( ) { int x = 3 , y = 5; if( x <= 5 ); cout<<”Hurray”; else cout<<” Trapped”; } 5. Write a program which inputs day(dd) , month(mm) and year(yyyy) and checks whether it is a valid date or not. [ A valid date must lie on the calendar ] 6. Dipu Jwellers gives discount on a fixed purchase total based on following criteria : Offer Offer Months Discount % Purchase total Winter Bonanza Oct to Feb 30 Between 3000 to 5000 Summer Bonanza Mar to June 20 Between 10000 to 12000 Monsoon Bonanza July to Sep 10 Between 2000 to 10000 If the purchase amount of a customer does not lies between the given purchase total then no discount should be given. Write a program to calculate the Bill amount of a purchase after giving proper discount. 2.1.5: switch-case statement switch-case construct is a type of conditional construct which resembles the same flow of logic as that of ladder if-else-if with few exceptions. Let us observe the syntax of the switch-case construct of C++ : Syntax : switch ( )
{
case :
//do something if switching variable value matches
// with that of value-1
break;
case :
//do something if switching variable value matches
// with that of value-2
break;
case < value-3> :

//do something if switching variable value matches
// with that of value-3
break;
:
:
:
case :
//do something if switching variable value matches
// with that of value-n
break;
default :
//do something if switching variable value does not matches
// with any value between value-1 to value-n
}

A switch-case control matches a particular switching value in a switch variable or a value generated after evaluating an expression with several values, when it finds an exact match between switch variable value and case value it enters into that particular case to execute the statements under that case, and then on finding a break statement it jumps out of the case and then comes out of the scope of switch-case without considering other cases value.

Example:

int menu_choice = 0;
cin>>menu_choice ;
switch (menu_choice)
{
case 1 :
cout<< “press key 's' to start the game”; break; case 2 : cout<<”press key 'n' to navigate through game plan”; break; case 3 : cout<<”press key 'c' to change the level of the game”; break; case 4 : cout<<”press key 'f' to fast your speed”; break; case 5 : cout<<”press key 'x' to exit from game”; break; default : cout<<”you have to choose between 1 to 5” ; } The above code implements a game menu design where inputted integer value in the switching variable menu_choice is being matched with values 1 to 5 , each value representing one game action. You may observe that the flow of the switch-case construct is same as ladder if-else-if construct, because it also deals with multiple paths of execution out of which a selected path gets executed. If none of the conditions gets satisfied then the statements under the default case gets executed. Points to remember while using a switch-case construct in a program : a) a break statement always ends a case, if break is not placed then all the cases after the current case gets executed till a break statement is met. b) a switch-case always matches its switch variable value with a single constant case value, this case value must always be a single integer value or a single character. Floats and double values of switch variable are not valid. i.e. the code below is invalid code : float v = 0.0 cin>> v;
switch( v)
{
case 1.1 :
// do something
break;

}

c) the cases in the switch cannot provide a range of values to be matched with the
switching variable i.e. we can’t write statements like >= 4 && <= 9 with cases. The following code is invalid : char ch = '*' ; cin >> ch;
switch(ch)
{
case >=’a’ && <='z' cout<<”You have entered lowercase alphabet”; break; case >= ‘A’ && <= 'Z' cout<<”You have entered uppercase alphabet”; break; } The above code gives us an example where ladder if-else-if has an advantage or switch- case, because we can have a logical statement having a range of values to be compared. d) The sequence of case value does not matters i.e. It is not compulsory to keep a lower case value as first case and the highest case value being the last case. They can exist in any order. e) The default case is optional and should be always kept at the last place in switch-case construct f) A switch-case construct can also be nested within another switch-case operator. Workout yourself : i) Write a program which inputs a month number from user and then finds the total days present in that month. Use only switch-case construct. For example if user inputs month number as 2 then the program displays “February has 28 or 29 days”. ii) Compare and contrast switch-case construct with ladder if-else-if construct in a tabular form. 2.1.6 : Conditional operator ( < > ? <> : <>)

Conditional Operator is a small short hand operator in C++ which helps to implement flow of logic based on some condition like if-else construct. The syntax of the conditional operator is :

Syntax :
? < true part > : < false part > ;

The logical expression in the operator gets evaluated either as true or false , if true then statement after symbol ( ? ) gets executed otherwise statement after symbol ( : ) gets executed. It acts much like an if ( ) – else construct but can only execute single statement. Like if-else the conditional operator cannot have a block of code to execute in its true or false part.

We often use conditional operator to implement a short one line conditional expression.

Example:
int x = 5 , y = 7;
int result = ( x > y ) ? 1 : 0;
cout<< result; The output of the above example would be 0 because the condition x > y is not being satisfied , hence the value 0 is being assigned to result. A conditional operator can be also nested within another conditional operator.

Workout yourself:

Write a program using conditional operator to find the highest of three inputted integers.
[Hint : use nesting of conditional operator]

2.1.7 : Nesting of all conditional constructs

In real life programming situations often all the conditional constructs are being used in a single program. Any of the conditional construct can be nested within any of the other construct. For example a switch-case construct can nest a ladder if-else-if within its scope, or each ladder condition of a ladder if-else-if may nest a switch-case construct within its scope. The following code snippet justifies this idea :

switch( < an expression> )
{
case :
if( < conndition -1 >)
{
// some code
}
else if (< condition-2>)
{
// some code
}
else
{
// some code
}
break;
case
if( < condition -1 >)
{
// some code
}
else if (< condition-2>)
{
// some code
}
else
{
// some code
}
break;

} // end of switch-case

Similarly we can have :

if ( )
{
switch(var1)
{
case :

break;
case


break;
case

break;
}
else if ( )
{
switch(var1)
{
case :

break;
case

break;
case

break;
}
}

Ask your teacher which of the constructs can be nested within which of the other constructs.

Check Your Progress :

1. Find the output of the code given below :
#include
void main( )
{
int x = 3;
switch(x)
{
case 1 :
cout<< “One”; break; case 2 : cout<< “Two”; break; case 3 : cout<< “Three” case 4 : cout<< “Four”; case 5: cout<< “Five”; break; } } 2. Find error in following code : #include
void main()
{
int a = 10;
int b = 10;
int c = 20;

switch ( a ) {
case b:
cout<<”Hurray B”; break; case c: cout<<”Hurray C”; break; default: cout<<”Wrong code”; break; } } 2.2 Iterative Constructs (Looping): Iterative constructs or Loops enables a program with a cyclic flow of logic. Each statement which is written under the scope of a looping statement gets executed the number of times the iteration/looping continues for. In previous chapter we have seen few real life scenarios where a looping construct is needed for performing a particular set of tasks repeatedly for a number of times. Now we will go into details of all looping constructs available in C++. In C++ there are three basic types of looping constructs available, they are : - while( ) loop // keyword while is used to loop - do-while( ) loop // keywords do and while are used to loop - for loop // keyword for is used to loop It is very important to understand that a looping construct enables repetition of tasks under its scope based on a particular condition called as loop-condition. This loop-condition evaluates as true or false. A loop may be continued till a loop-condition is evaluated as true or false, based on a particular program situation. All the above mentioned three loops have three parts common in them i.e. - the looping variable ( iterator ) - the loop-condition - logic to change the value of iterator with each cycle/iteration Let me show you distinguishably these three parts and then we will proceed to the syntax. Iterator loop-condition logic to modify iterator value for( int i = 0 ; i <= 7 ; i = i * 4 ) // some code Similarly , while and do-while also have these three significant parts as shown below : int i = 0 int i = 0; while ( i<= 7 ) do { { // some code //some code i = i * 4 ; i = i *4; } } while(i <= 7 ) ; 2.2.1 : while( ) loop construct A while loop tests for its ending condition before performing its contents - even the first time. So if the ending condition is met when the while loop begins, the lines of instructions it contains will never be carried out. Syntax : while ()
{
…;
…;
}

A while continues iteration-cycle till its loop condition is evaluated as false. If the loop-condition is false for the first time iteration then loop will not execute even once.
Example :

int x = 0, sum = 0 ;
cout<<”Input a natural number”; cin>>x;
while(x > 0 )
{
sum = sum + x;
x – – ;
}
cout<<”The sum is :” << sum; The above code snippet finds the sum of n natural number using while loop. The loop is executed till the x is greater than 0 , as soon x becomes 0 the loop is terminated. We observe that within the scope of the loop the value of x is decremented so that it approaches to its next previous value. Thus with each iteration the value of x is added to a variable sum and is decremented by 1. Lets understand the above program with a Dry Run. Let us assume that user inputs a value 4 for x then at : 1st Iteration start x is 4 , sum = 0 i.e. the loop-condition 4 > 0 is evaluated as true hence it opens
up the while block
==> sum = 0 + 4 = 4
x will be decremented by 1 , thus x = 3

2nd Iteration start
x is 3 , sum = 4 i.e. the loop-condition 3 > 0 is evaluated as true hence it opens
up the while block
==> sum = 4 + 3 = 7
x will be decremented by 1 , thus x = 2

3rd Iteration start
x is 2 , sum = 7 i.e. the loop-condition 2 > 0 is evaluated as true hence it opens
up the while block
==> sum = 7 + 2 = 9
x will be decremented by 1 , thus x = 1

4th Iteration start
x is 1 , sum = 9 i.e. the loop-condition 1 > 0 is evaluated as true hence it opens
up the while block
==> sum = 9 + 1 = 10
x will be decremented by 1 , thus x = 0
5th Iteration start
x is 0 , sum = 10 i.e. the loop-condition 0 > 0 is evaluated as false because
0 == 0 hence it locks up the while block and while() loop is terminated.

Thus coming out of while loop block the value of sum is printed as 10
loop executes for 4 times.

Workout yourself :

Consider the program given below :

void main( )
{
int x = 5, m = 1 , p = 0;
while( p <= 50 ) { p = x * m ; m++; } } Now complete the following Iteration tracking table with details of each iteration, the first one is done for you : Iteration loop-condition x p m 1st Iteration 0<= 50 ==> true 5 5 2

Check it out with your teacher.

Why my while loop is not getting executed ?

It is very important to understand here that in while loop the looping condition is evaluated at the beginning of the loop’s scope i.e. prior to the entering into scope of loop. This type of checking is called “Entry Control Checking”, if the condition fails this checking it will not be allowed into the scope of the loop. That is why while( ) loops are often called as “Entry Control Loop”. You can imagine a similar checking situation that your tickets are being checked prior to your entry into a cinema hall to view a film. You will not be able to view the film at all if you don’t have the tickets !!

Similarly if the loop-condition fails at the first time itself the statements under the scope of loop will not run even once. Observe such a code scenario below :

noOfPersons = 4;
noOfTickets = 3 ;

while( noOfTickets >= noOfPersons )
{
cout<<”Welcome to Gangs of C++ pure” } The above loop will not execute at all because the loop-condition is failing at first time. 2.2.2 : do-while( ) loop construct A do-while loop is identical to a while loop in every sense except that it is guaranteed to perform the instructions inside once before testing for the ending condition. Syntax: do { // do something ; // do something ; } while( ) ;

Example: Consider the following code snippet to find factorial of a given number n :

int f = 1;
int n = 0;
cin>> n;

do
{
f = f * n ;
– – n ;
} while( n > 0 ) ;
cout << “The factorial of : “ << n <<” is “ < 0 evaluates as true hence loop is continued
2nd Iteration-cycle :
f = 4 * 3 = 12 , n = 2 , condition n > 0 evaluates as true hence loop is continued
3rd Iteration-cycle :
f = 12 * 2 = 24 , n = 1 , condition n > 0 evaluates as true hence loop is continued
4th Iteration-cycle :
f = 24 * 1 = 24 , n = 0 , condition n > 0 evaluates as false , as 0 == 0 hence loop is
terminated and program flow comes out of the scope of the loop into program scope.

The output is printed on console as:
“The factorial of : 0 is 24”

Workout yourself :

Though the above factorial code snippet has executed nicely and produced correct and valid result of factorial of 4 i.e. 24 but while prompting output to user it wrongly says that “factorial of :0 is 24” . It must show that “factorial of 4 is 24”.

Find out the reason for the above misprinting and correct the program by modifying the code so that it produces expected output prompt to user.

Check your result with your teacher.

Why my do-while() loop is getting executed once even when the condition is not satisfied !

It is very important to understand here that in do-while loop the looping condition is evaluated at the end of the loop’s scope i.e. after the last statement in the scope of loop. This type of checking is called “Exit Control Checking”, if the condition fails this checking it will not be allowed into the scope of the loop on next iteration-cycle. In the whole affair you are observing that the loop had executed at least once even when condition fails in 1st Iteration-cycle. That is why do-while( ) loops are often called as “Exit Control Loop”. You can imagine a similar checking situation that your shopping bag items and purchase bill are being checked on your exit out of a shopping mall where you have been for shopping.
For example consider the program 2.3 ahead.

Sentinels :
Often a looping construct executes loop for a fixed number of times based on certain looping condition placed on the looping variable or the iterator, but sometimes the termination of loop is not fixed i.e. the termination of loop depends on some outside input. These types of loops where termination of loop is not fixed and depends on outside input are called sentinels.
For example : Consider the program given below :

program 2.3

// program to count number of adults and minors

#include
void main( )
{
int ad = 0 , m = 0;

int age = 0;

cout<< “Input age :”; cin>> age;

while(age > 0)
{
if( age >= 18 )
ad++ ;
else
m++;
cout<< “Input age :”; cin>> age;
}

cout<< “There are total “ << ad <<” adults and” << m << “minors”; } Can you tell how many times the loop in above question runs ? Your answer would be probably “No” , or better you will tell that since the termination of the loop depends upon the value of the variable age, it is not fixed that how many times the loop may run. Yes this is the feature a sentinel has , here the value of variable age controls the execution cycle of the while () loop. If the value of the age inputted by the used before the start of the loop is inputted as 0 then the loop will not be executed at all because the condition fails on the start of the first cycle itself. Moreover it also not fixed that after how many cycles the user may input a 0 value to stop the loop , he/she may input after 3 cycles or 5 or may be 200 ! Workout yourself: In the above program 2.3, remove the two shaded input line placed before the start of while () construct, and then execute the code to find whether you are getting same result as before or anything wrong. If incorrect result is produced then find the reason explain it to class friends. 2.2.3 : for( ; ; ) loop A for loop has all of its three parts i,e the iterator variable , loop-condition and logic to continue loop kept intact at one place separated by semi colon ( ; ) . This loop is also an Entry Control Loop, as condition is checked before entering into the scope of the loop. Let us analyze the syntax of a for looping: Syntax: for ( ; ; )

{
// do something

}

The first part of a for loop is a place where all looping variables are declared and initialized in the same way we declare multiple variables of a single data type : e.g. int i = 0 , j = 2 , k = 9 … ;
This part of the loop is executed only once at the start up of the loop and never it is executed again ( how can you re-declare variables with the same name! in same scope). As per turbo c++ compiler the scope of all these variables declared in for loop is same as program-scope i.e. they can be accessed from any other scope in the main( ), but the current ISO C++ has changed this making the scope of all these variable local to for loop only. You will follow the turbo c++ type scoping.

The second part of a for loop defines the looping condition using set of relational and logical operators and governs the number of times the loop would execute. This looping condition is checked before entering into loop, for e.g. i <= j+k etc. The third part of the for loop defines how to change the value of iterative / looping variables with each cycle. This is very important as to execute the loop for a fixed number of times , for e.g. i++ , j = j+k etc Let us now integrate all the above three parts to observe how a for loop works : Example : for(int i = 0 ; i<=3 ; i++) { cout<<”Arun Kumar\n”; cout<<”Kamal Kant Gupta\n”; cout<<”Anil Kumar\n”; } The above loop starts with declaring variable i = 0 , then it proceeds to the looping-condition part to check whether condition is satisfied (evaluates as true) so that the flow could enter into the scope of the loop. i.e. 0 <= 3 which is true , the control flow is allowed to enter into the scope of the loop and all the statements ( the 3 lines ) gets executed one after another. After executing the last statement within the scope of for() the control proceeds to the third part of the loop where it increments the value of looping variable i by 1 , so that the variable is getting the next consecutive higher value i.e. i = 1. Hence the first Iteration of the for( ) loop is finished. Now at the start of the next iteration the control flow directly proceeds to the second part of the for loop to evaluate looping-condition i.e. 1 <= 3 which is true , the flow of control then proceeds in the similar way as it did in the first iteration and this is repeated till the looping-condition becomes false i.e. when i will become equal to 4 . Let us put all the things discussed above in the form of an iteration tracking table : Iteration i Looping condition Output Starting of loop 0 0<=3 → true Arun Kumar Kamal Kant Gupta Anil Kumar End of 1st Iteration i++ → 1 1<= 3 → true Same as above End of 2nd Iteration i++ → 2 2<= 3 → true Same as above End of 3rd Iteration i++ → 3 3<=3 → true Same as above End of 4th Iteration i++ → 4 4<=3 → false No entry into for block , loop is terminated Observe the above table carefully to find that the loop has executed for 4 times, and the last value of the iterative variable on the termination of loop is 4. Variations in for( ) loop : All the three parts of a for loop are optional part i.e. they may or may not be present. Observe the valid variation in syntax of for( ) loop : variation-1 : int i = 0; for( ; i<=5 ; i++ ) cout<<”Hello to all”; In the above for( ) loop the first part has been left i.e. we have not declared and initialized the iterator in for( ) , though it has been declared outside the scope of for( ). variation-2 : int i = 0 ; for( ; ; i++) { if( i<=5 ) cout<<”Hello to all”; else break; } In the above variation-2 the loop is not having first and second part defined for it, though the execution of the program remains same as version 1 since iterator has been declared and the condition for terminating the loop is implemented through a if-else construct inside the loop. You may observe that to terminate the loop we have used the break statement. Whenever a break statement is found in a particular construct 's scope it immediately comes out of the current scope. Variation-3 : int i = 0 ; for ( ; ; ) { if( i<=5 ) { cout<<”Hello to all”; i++; } else break; } The above variation-3 is implemented in a similar to that of the variation-3 but it has its incrementation statement defined within if( ) construct. In all of the above variations you might have observed that it is compulsory to put a semicolon ( 😉 within for( ) even when statements before and after it are absent. 2.3 : Nested Loops Students in section 2.1.7 we have seen that any conditional construct can be nested within any other conditional construct. Similarly any looping construct can also be nested within any other looping construct and conditional constructs. Let us look at the following example showing the nesting of a for( ) loop within the scope of another for( ) loop : for(int i = 1 ; i<=2 ; i++) Outer for( ) loop { for( int j = 1 ; j<=3 ; j++) Inner for( ) loop { cout<< i * j < function_name( ) ;

where :
return type := is the value which the function returns , if function does not returns any
value then we may write there void.
function_name := any valid C++ identifier name

parameter list := declaration of variables of different data types separated by comma
these values are inputs passed from outside to the function.

The function declaration as per the syntax given above is also called as prototype declaration. In C++ it is compulsory to declare prototype of a function before defining and using it .

The parameter variable in the declaration are also called Formal parameters.

Function Definition :

While function definition described about the structure of a function , its inputs and output type , the definition of function actually implements the code of the function. While defining a function we add

C++ code to its block as per requirement.

Syntax : function_name( )
{ … }

Example : Declare and define a function which finds the sum of two integers and returns it.

int getSum( int , int ); // declaration of a function

int getSum( int a , int b ) // definition of the function
{
int r = a+b;
return r;
}

The above function declaration has a return type as integer , because the function is meant to return a sum of two numbers. Two numbers to be added are passed to the function as input parameter. The parameter list is having two int separated by a comma ( , ) it is not compulsory to write a variable names of the parameters in declaration. A semicolon is terminating the declaration of function.

The definition of function is having code written within its scope where the sum is calculated over the passed parameters a and b and the result is returned using a keyword return. It is compulsory that the return data type must be same as that of the datatype of the variable returned using return statement.

Workout yourself :

Declare the prototype of a function which :

i) multiplies three integers and return the product
ii) checks whether a passed integer parameter is even or odd
iii) prints your name 20 times.

Consider the few more definition of functions related to various program :

Function 3.1 :
// function to check whether a given number is prime or not
int isPrime(int );
int isPrime(int num )
{
int count = 0;
for( int i = 1 ; i <= num ; i++) if( num % I == 0) count++; if (count > 2 )
return 0 ; // more than two factors means it is not prime , hence a false value is returned
else
return 1 ; // exactly two factors i.e. 1 and num itself means num is prime , hence return a
// true value i.e. 1
}

In the above function if the passed parameter to the function i.e. num would be a prime it will have exactly two factors counted out in variable count and if not would have more than 2 factors. After we conduct a looping over the num to check its divisibility by every value from 1 to num we get count incremented whenever num is divisible by i (looping-variable ). So on the termination of loop the variable count stores the total number of times num gets divisible in the loop.

We check this count value to find whether it is more than two or not, if it is more than two it means num has more than two factors and hence it does not satisfies to be a prime , hence we return an integer 0 to designate that it is not prime , other wise we return 1.

Instead of returning 1 and 0 from function you directly print using cout that num is prime or not, but then don’t forget to change the return type of the function isPrime( ) to void.

Function 3.2 :

// function to print all even numbers found between two given integer parameters

void findSum( int , int);
void findSum(int i , int j )
{
int sum = 0;
if( i <= j) { for( int k = i ; k<= j ; k++) if( k % 2 == 0) cout<< k << “ ,”; } else cout<< “Range not valid”; } Explanation : In the above function there was no need of returning any value from its scope, we have to print the even numbers found within the for loop. Since a function can return only one value at a time, and once its returns a value the scope of the function finishes all the variables declared in its scope dies off and are no more available to be used again. So instead of returning we printed the multiple outputs using a cout. Look how we have declared the function return type as void when we are not returning any value from its scope. Function 3.3 : // program to find the HCF of two inputted numbers : void getHCF( ); void getHCF( ) { int n1 = 0 , n2 = 0; int hcf = 0; cout<< “Input two numbers whose hcf is to be found”; cin>>n1>>n2;
if( n1 == n2 )
cout<< n1; else if( n1 < n2) { for( int d = 1 ; d <= n2 ; d++) { if( n1 % d == 0 && n2 % d == 0) { hcf = d; } } cout<< “The hcf is “ << hcf ; } else { for( int d = 1 ; d <= n1 ; d++) { if( n1 % d == 0 && n2 % d == 0) { hcf = d; } } cout<< “The hcf is “ << hcf ; } } // end of function Explanation : Look at the function definition of the above function , since the function is taking the two required inputs within its scope using cout and cin, we had not passed any parameters to function thus we have kept the paranthesis ( ) empty. Also as the function directly prints the output there is no need to return any value from its scope, hence return type is void. The logic of the function is simple : we are finding the highest of the two numbers and then running a loop from 1 to the highest number and in each iteration we are finding out whether the iterator value divides both the numbers , if it then we put that iterator's value into variable hcf , changing the old value of variable hcf. Thus at the end of the loop the hcf is left out with the Highest Common Factor and we print it with a cout. Function 3.4 : // function to find the Simple Interest on a given principal , rate , and time where the default value of the // time parameter is kept 1 yr. float getSimpleInt(float , float , float=1 ); float getSimpleInt(float p , float rate , float time) { float si = (p * rate * time)/100; return si; } The above program is having a new type of parameter known as default parameter. A C++ function parameter can be made default if that parameter is assigned any constant either at the time of declaring it or at the time of its definition. When we associate a default value to a parameter as we have associated 1 with last parameter, then this value will be used if the function is getting called without passing this parameter in the call. This we will again see ahead while discussing a function call. The logic of the program is quite easy to understand. Anyway default parameters must be always declared from right to left, otherwise will cause error. i.e you can't make principal alone as default. Following declaration is Invalid. float SimpleInt(float p = 1000 , float rate , float t=1); or float SimpleInt(float p , float rate = 2 , float t); If you want to make principal as default parameter you have to make all the parameters on its right side default as well. So the valid declaration in such case would be : float SimpleInt(float p = 1000 , float rate=2 , float t=1); 3.2.2 : Calling a C++ Function from a program : You might be wondering that err!! in the above few function examples , the author has forgot to write a main( ) function ( a main is also a function!) , then how the code written within the scope of the function would be executed? You might be also wondering that in The general syntax of calling a function would be in above functions 3.1 , 3.2 and 3.4 the author has not asked the user to input values for variables used in these functions? So students it done knowingly , the codes within the scope of a function never gets executed if it not called from the scope of other scope. Just like your badly damaged non-functional land-line is not going to repaired of its own until unless you are not calling a mechanic! . So a function has to be called from the scope of another function so that the code within the scope of the function works. Usually we make this call from the scope of main( ) function, but we can call a function from the scope of any other function if the called function is defined globally. The other doubt that author has not provided the input values in few function is also reasonable because a user should input the parameter values, if not error will be given. A user inputs the parameter values from the same scope where from it calls the function. Let us know see the syntax of calling a function : A function call for a non-returning type function (return type is void ) : function_name( = function_name( > val;

int r = isPrime( val ); //second type of calling

if ( r == 1 )
cout<< val << “ is prime” ; // function is returning 1 only when it found the num be // a prime value. else cout<< val << “ is not a prime” ; } //calling of function 3.2 : void findSum( int , int); from main( ) void main ( ) { int v1 = 0 , v2 = 0; cout<<”input two integer to be checked”; cin>>v1>>v2;

int s = findSum( v1 , v2); //second type of calling

cout<< “The sum is”<< s ; // function returns the sum which is caught by s and // shown!! } //calling of function 3.3 : void getHCF( ); from main( ) void main ( ) { getHCF( ); //first type of calling // though it appears that this type of calling is an easier method, but it is // rarely used in actual software making industries. } //calling of function 3.4 : float getSimpleInt(float , float , float=1 );; from main( ) ; we may call this //function a different ways let us see void main() { float prnc = 5000, rt = 10 , tm = 5; float si = 0.0; // first call produces si : Rs 2500 si = getSimpleInt(prnc , rt , tm); // second call produces si = Rs. 500 si = getSimpleInt(prnc , rt ); // last parameter is omitted as it was declared as // as optional type with a default value = 1 } 3.2.3 : Arguments passed by value and by reference Until now, in all the functions we have seen, the arguments passed to the functions have been passed by value. This means that when calling a function with parameters, what we have passed to the function were copies of their values but never the variables themselves. For example, suppose that we called our first function addition using the following code: int x=5, y=3, z; z = addition ( x , y ); What we did in this case was to call to function addition passing the values of x and y, i.e. 5 and 3 respectively, but not the variables x and y themselves. This way, when the function addition is called, the value of its local variables a and b become 5 and 3 respectively, but any modification to either a or b within the function addition will not have any effect in the values of x and y outside it, because variables x and y were not themselves passed to the function, but only copies of their values at the moment the function was called. But there might be some cases where you need to manipulate from inside a function the value of an external variable. For that purpose we can use arguments passed by reference, as in the function duplicate of the following example: // passing parameters by reference #include

void duplicate (int& a, int& b, int& c)
{
a*=2;
b*=2;
c*=2;
}

int main ()
{
int x=1, y=3, z=7;
duplicate (x, y, z);
cout << "x=" << x << ", y=" << y << ", z=" << z; return 0; } output : x=2, y=6, z=14 The first thing that should call your attention is that in the declaration of duplicate the type of each parameter was followed by an ampersand sign (&). This ampersand is what specifies that their corresponding arguments are to be passed by reference instead of by value. When a variable is passed by reference we are not passing a copy of its value, but we are somehow passing the variable itself to the function and any modification that we do to the local variables will have an effect in their counterpart variables passed as arguments in the call to the function. To explain it in another way, we associate a, b and c with the arguments passed on the function call (x, y and z) and any change that we do on a within the function will affect the value of x outside it. Any change that we do on b will affect y, and the same with c and z. That is why our program's output, that shows the values stored in x, y and z after the call to duplicate, shows the values of all the three variables of main doubled. If when declaring the following function: void duplicate (int& a, int& b, int& c) we had declared it this way: void duplicate (int a, int b, int c) i.e., without the ampersand signs (&), we would have not passed the variables by reference, but a copy of their values instead, and therefore, the output on screen of our program would have been the values of x, y and z without having been modified. Passing by reference is also an effective way to allow a function to return more than one value. For example, here is a function that returns the previous and next numbers of the first parameter passed. // more than one returning value #include
void prevnext (int x, int& prev, int& next)
{
prev = x-1;
next = x+1;
}

int main ()
{
int x=100, y, z;
prevnext (x, y, z);
cout << "Previous=" << y << ", Next=" << z; return 0; } Ouput :Previous=99, Next=101 3.2.4 : Arguments passed as const parameter Look at the following protoype : void myFunction( const int x = 10 ); The above function is declaring its first parameter as const i.e even if the user tries to pass value to this argument the new value will not change the value assigned to the const parameter, even in the scope of the function also it will remain unchaged. Let us see one example : void myFunction( const int x = 10 ) { cout<< x; } main( ) { myFunction(3 ); // even if the function is passed with a value 3 it will not accept. } The output of the code will be 10 instead of 3. So whenever you don't want to restrict your parameter to a fixed value , declare it as const. Some compiler may produce error. check your progress : 1. Write a function ( waf) to find the largest out of three integers as input parameters. 2. W.a.f to find whether a number either divisible by its predecessor and successor. 3. W.a.f which returns the sum of digits of any integer passed to it as parameter. 4. W.a.f to calculate discount amount on a given rate of item and discount % offered. 3.1.2 : Library Functions : These functions are ready-made functions available with C++ compiler. They are stored under various header files. A header file is a normal C++ program file with .h extension containing the code for all the C++ functions defined under it. Header files group functions according to its use and common feature. Following are some important Header files and useful functions within them : 1. stdio.h (standard I/O function) : gets( ) , puts( ) 2. ctype.h (character type function) : isalnum( ) , isalpha( ) isdigit ( ), islower ( ),isupper ( ), tolower ( ), toupper( ) 3. string.h ( string related function ) : strcpy ( ), strcat ( ) strlen( ), strcmp( ) , strcmpi( ) , strrev( ) strupr( ) , strlwr( ) 4. math.h (mathematical function) : fabs ( ), pow ( ), sqrt ( ), sin ( ), cos ( ), abs ( ) 5. stdlib.h : randomize ( ), random ( ), itoa( ) , atoi(). The above list is just few of the header files and functions available under them , but actually there are many more. If you want to learn their use go to the help menu of your turbo C++ compiler and search out function list and learn its prototype. The calling of library function is just like User defined function , with just few differences as follows: i) We don't have to declare and define library function. ii) We must include the appropriate header files , which the function belongs to, in global area so as these functions could be linked with the program and called. Library functions also may or may not return values. If it is returning some values then the value should be assigned to appropriate variable with valid datatype. Let us deal with each of these library functions by calling the them from programs : gets( ) and puts( ) : these functions are used to input and output strings on the console during program run-time. gets( ) accept a string input from user to be stored in a character array. puts() displays a string output to user stored in a character array. program 3.1 : // program to use gets( ) and puts( ) #include
#include // must include this line so that gets( ) , puts( ) could be linked and called
void main( )
{
char myname[25] ; //declaring a character array of size 25

cout<<”input your name : “; gets(myname) ; // just pass the array name into the parameter of the function. cout<< “You have inputted your name as : “ ; puts(myname); } isalnum( ) , isalpha( ), isdigit( ) : checks whether the character which is passed as parameter to them are alphanumeric or alphabetic or a digit ('0' to '9') . If checking is true functions returns 1. program 3.2 : // program to use isalnum( ) , isalpha( ), isdigit( ) #include
#include
void main( )
{
char ch;
cout<<”Input a character”; cin>>ch;
if( isdigit(ch) == 1)
cout<<”The inputed character is a digit”; else if(isalnum(ch) == 1) cout<<”The inputed character is an alphanumeric”; else if(isalpha(ch) == 1) cout<<”The inputed character is an alphabet. } islower ( ),isupper ( ), tolower ( ), toupper( ) : islower( ) checks whether a character has lower case , isupper( ) does opposite. tolower( ) converts any character passed to it in its lower case and the toupper( ) does opposite. program 3.3: // program to use islower ( ),isupper ( ), tolower ( ), toupper( ) #include
#include
void main( )
{
char ch;
cout<<”Input a character”; cin>>ch;
if( isupper(ch) == 1) // checks if character is in upper case converts the character to lowercase
{
tolower(ch);
cout<
#include #define PI 3.14159265 // macro definition PI will always hold 3.14159265

int main ()
{

cout<<"The absolute value of 3.1416 is : “< ) : This function accepts an integer parameter say x and then generates a random
value between 0 to x-1

for example : random(7) will generate numbers between 0 to 6.

To generate random numbers between a lower and upper limit we can use following formula :
random(U – L +1 ) + L
where U and L are the Upper limit and Lower limit values between which we want to find out random
values.

For example : If we want to find random numbers between 10 to 100 then we have to write code as :

random(100 -10 +1) + 10 ; // generates random number between 10 to 100

Check you progress :

1. Name the header files to which the following functions belongs:

i) toupper( ) , ii) fabs( ) , iii) sqrt( ) , iv) strcpy( )

2. Write a program to check whether a string variable is palidrome or not , using only library function.

—————————-x——————–end of chapter 3—————–x———————————-

Summary :

1. Functions provides modularity to programs.
2. Functions can be re-used.
3. Functions can be of two types : User Defined and Library.
4. We have to declare and define user define functions either in program-scope or header files to
use them in a program.
5. To use library functions appropriate header files must be included using #include directive
6. A prototype of a function means , the number , data-types and sequence of its parameters.
7. During function call it is very necessary to pass parameter values (actual parameters) to the
function in the same order and type as define in its prototype.
8. The Library functions are kept within header files. These header files are made as per the
working nature of the function.
9. A big software must use modular approach of programming to which function is as essential
programming element.
10. Sometimes instead of passing values as parameters to the function we pass its references to
the function. This type of calling is known as call by reference.

Chapter – 4

Structured Data Types : Arrays and Structures.

Objectives :
• to understand the meaning of structure datatypes and its availability in C++.
• To appreciate the use and importance of Arrays in C++
• to differentiate between the use and implementation of different types of Arrays
• To use structures as User Defined data type to write programs.
• To understand and use typedef

Structured Data types :

Students till now whatever data type we have used are just primitive data types like int , char , float , etc. All these datatypes are defined within the C++ compiler and that is why they are also called as primitive. We can define a length using int , a weight using float , a name using characters etc. but suppose I tell you “please define a fruit for me in program” ,then your mind starts wondering, as you can’t define a fruit just with any one datatype as you did with length , weight etc.

A Fruit itself is a composite entity having following attributes :

color : can be described with a name i.e. char [ ]
taste : can be described with a name i.e. char[ ]
season : can be described with int i.e. 1 for summer , 2 for winter …
price : can be described as float
ans so on…
This means that to describe a fruit we need to have a collection of data-types bundled togeather so that all the attributes of the fruit can be captured. This is true for any real world thing around you say student , mobile , plant etc. So when we bundle many primitive data types together to define a real world thing then it is known as derived data type or structured data type or User defined data types.

In this chapter we would look onto two important structured data types , one is Array and the other one is Structure.

Sometimes we need to have variables in very large quantities , that too of same data type i.e. suppose we want 200 integer variables. In this situation will you declare 200 individual variables ? Absolutely not. This is because it will :
a) wastage of time as well time taking task
b) we won’t be able to manage these 200 variables in our program , it will be difficult to
remember the names of variable every now and then during programming.
So there exist special structured data type in C++ to tackle this situation. C++ allows a programmer to bundle together all these same type of 200 variable under a same tag name called as Arrays.

So we are observing that structuring data type means bundling primitive data type in some or other way so that it solves some special programming situations.
4.1 Arrays

An array is a series of elements of the same type placed in contiguous memory locations that can be individually referenced by adding an index to a unique identifier.

That means that, for example, we can store 5 values of type int in an array without having to declare 5 different variables, each one with a different identifier. Instead of that, using an array we can store 5 different values of the same type, int for example, with a unique identifier.

For example, an array to contain 5 integer values of type int called myArr could be represented like this:
myArr 0 1 2 3 4

|—————|
int

where each blank panel represents an element of the array, that in this case are integer values of type int. These elements are numbered from 0 to 4 since in arrays the first index is always 0, independently of its length.

Like a regular variable, an array must be declared before it is used. A typical declaration for an array in C++ is:

Syntax : array_name [elements];

where datatype is a valid type (like int, float…), name is a valid identifier and the elements field (which is always enclosed in square brackets [ ]), specifies how many of these elements the array has to contain.

Therefore, in order to declare an array called myArr as the one shown in the above diagram it is as simple as:
int myArr [5];

NOTE: The elements field within brackets [ ] which represents the number of elements the array is going to hold, must be a constant value, since arrays are blocks of non-dynamic memory whose size must be determined before execution. In order to create arrays with a variable length dynamic memory is needed, which is explained later in these tutorials.
Initializing arrays.
When declaring a regular array of local scope (within a function, for example), if we do not specify otherwise, its elements will not be initialized to any value by default, so their content will be undetermined until we store some value in them. The elements of global and static arrays, on the other hand, are automatically initialized with their default values, which for all fundamental types this means they are filled with zeros.

In both cases, local and global, when we declare an array, we have the possibility to assign initial values to each one of its elements by enclosing the values in braces { }. For example:
int myArr [5] = { 16, 2, 77, 40, 12071 };

This declaration would have created an array like this:

The amount of values between braces { } must not be larger than the number of elements that we declare for the array between square brackets [ ]. For example, in the example of array myArr we have declared that it has 5 elements and in the list of initial values within braces { } we have specified 5 values, one for each element.

When an initialization of values is provided for an array, C++ allows the possibility of leaving the square brackets empty [ ]. In this case, the compiler will assume a size for the array that matches the number of values included between braces { }:
int myArr [ ] = { 16, 2, 77, 40, 12071 };

After this declaration, array myArr would be 5 ints long, since we have provided 5 initialization values.
Accessing the values of an array.

In any point of a program in which an array is visible, we can access the value of any of its elements individually as if it was a normal variable, thus being able to both read and modify its value. The format is as simple as:

Syntax: array_name[index]

Following the previous examples in which myArr had 5 elements and each of those elements was of type int, the name which we can use to refer to each element is the following:

For example, to store the value 75 in the third element of myArr, we could write the following statement:
myArr[2] = 75;

and, for example, to pass the value of the third element of myArr to a variable called a, we could write:
a = myArr[2];

Therefore, the expression myArr[2] is for all purposes like a variable of type int.

Notice that the third element of myArr is specified myArr[2], since the first one is myArr[0], the second one is myArr[1], and therefore, the third one is myArr[2]. By this same reason, its last element is myArr[4]. Therefore, if we write myArr[5], we would be accessing the sixth element of myArr and therefore exceeding the size of the array.

In C++ it is syntactically correct to exceed the valid range of indices for an array. This can create problems, since accessing out-of-range elements do not cause compilation errors but can cause runtime errors. The reason why this is allowed will be seen further ahead when we begin to use pointers.

At this point it is important to be able to clearly distinguish between the two uses that brackets [ ] have related to arrays. They perform two different tasks: one is to specify the size of arrays when they are declared; and the second one is to specify indices for concrete array elements. Do not confuse these two possible uses of brackets [ ] with arrays.
int myArr[5]; // declaration of a new array
myArr[2] = 75; // access to an element of the array.

If you read carefully, you will see that a type specifier always precedes a variable or array declaration, while it never precedes an access.

Some other valid operations with arrays:
myArr[0] = a;
myArr[a] = 75;
b = myArr [a+2];
myArr[myArr[a]] = myArr[2] + 5;

program 4.1

// adding all the elements of an array
#include
using namespace std;

int myArr [] = {16, 2, 77, 40, 12071};
int n, result=0;

int main ()
{
for ( n=0 ; n<5 ; n++ ) { result += myArr[n]; } cout << result; return 0; } Output : 12206 Dynamic Initialization: Arrays can also be initialized during runtime. The following program shows how to input values into arrays during rum time : program 4.2 // Inputting value in an array during run-time #include
main()
{
int my_arr[5]; // name of array.
cout<<”\nEnter values at: “; for(int i = 0 ; i < 5; i++) { cout<<”\n”<>my_arr[ i ]; //stores value at ith index.
}
}

//program 4.3

// program to store 10 integers and show them.
#include
main()
{
int my_arr[5]; // name of array.
cout<<”\nEnter values at: “; for(int i = 0 ; i < 10; i++) { cout<<”\n”<>my_arr[ i ]; //stores value at ith index.
}
for(int i = 0 ; i < 10; i++) { cout<<”\Number at ”<
#include
#include main( )
{
int a[10] , val = 0;
cout<<”Input ten integers : “; // inputting array value for(int i = 0 ; i<=9 ; i++) { cin>> a[i];
}
// searching element
for(int i = 0 ; i<=9 ; i++) { if(a[i] == val) { cout<<”Element found at index location : “ << i; getch(); exit(); // if element is found no need to further search, terminate program } } // if control flow reaches here that means if( ) in the loop was never satisfied cout<<”Element not found”; } // program 4.5 // program to find the maximum and minimum of an array : #include
main( )
{
int arr[ ] = {10, 6 , -9 , 17 , 34 , 20 , 34 ,-2 ,92 ,22 };
int max = min = arr[0];
for(int i = 0 ; i<= 9 ; i++) { if(arr[i] < min) min= arr[i]; if(arr[i] > max)
max = arr[i];
}
cout<<”The minimum of all is : “ << min<<”and the maximum is : “ <
int main ()
{
char question[ ] = “Please, enter your first name: “;
char greeting[ ] = “Hello, “;
char yourname [80];
cout << question; cin >> yourname;
cout << greeting << yourname << "!"; return 0; } output : Please, enter your first name: John Hello, John! As you can see, we have declared three arrays of char elements. The first two were initialized with string literal constants, while the third one was left uninitialized. In any case, we have to specify the size of the array: in the first two (question and greeting) the size was implicitly defined by the length of the literal constant they were initialized to. While for yourname we have explicitly specified that it has a size of 80 chars. //Program 4. 7 // program to count total number of vowels present in a string : #include
#include
int main( )
{
char string[35]; int count = 0;
cout<<”Input a string”; gets(string); // library function in stdio.h to input a string for(int i = 0 ; string[i] != '/0' ; i++) { if( string[i] == 'a' || string[i] == 'e' || string[i] == 'o' || string[i] == 'u' || string[i] == 'i' || string[i] == 'A' || string[i] == 'E' || string[i] == 'O' || string[i] == 'U' || string[i] == 'I' ) { count++; } } } In the above program the loop is iterated till the character at ith location matches with null character, because after that there is no character left to be scanned. So scanning of characters from first to last character is done using for loop and if vowels are found count keeps incrementing. String related library functions : There are few string related library functions in header file string.h which are very useful when we work with strings. They are : i) strlen( char[ ]) : it accepts a string as parameter and returns the length of the string i.e. number of characters within the string. For example strlen(“Hurray”) will return 6. ii) strcpy(char[ ] , char[ ]) : it accepts two strings as input parameters and then copies the second into the first. For example : char mstr[ ] = “Suresh”; char ystr[20]; strcpy(ystr , mstr); // copies content of mstr into ystr puts(mstr); // prints Suresh iii) strrev(char[ ]) : it accepts a string , reverses its content and stores it back into the same string. For example : char myName[ ] = “Kamal”; strrev(myName); puts(myName) ; // prints the reversed string as “lamaK” iv) strcmp(char[ ] , char[ ]) : it accepts two parameters and then compares their content alphabetically, the one which comes first in the acsii chart has considered to be lower. This function returns the value as integer. The integer can be : 0 : if the two strings are equal +val : if the first string is bigger than the second -ve : if the second string is bigger than the first. The above comparison is case sensitive , if we want to perform case insensitive comparison then we have to take another version of the function called as strcmpi( ) Example : if( strcmpi(“Kamal” , “kamal”) != 0); cout<<”Not equal”; else cout<<”equal”; 4.3 Multidimensional arrays Multidimensional arrays can be described as "arrays of arrays". For example, a two dimensional array can be imagined as a bidimensional table made of elements, all of them of a same uniform data type. twoDArr represents a bidimensional array of 3 per 5 elements of type int. The way to declare this array in C++ would be: int twoDArr [3][5]; and, for example, the way to reference the second element vertically and fourth horizontally in an expression would be: twoDArr[1][3] (remember that array indices always begin by zero). Multidimensional arrays are not limited to two indices (i.e., two dimensions). They can contain as many indices as needed. But be careful! The amount of memory needed for an array rapidly increases with each dimension. For example: char alpha [100][365][24][60][60]; declares an array with a char element for each second in a alpha, that is more than 3 billion chars. So this declaration would consume more than 3 gigabytes of memory! Program 4.2 // program to show use of a 2D array #define WIDTH 5 #define HEIGHT 3 int twoDArr [HEIGHT][WIDTH]; int n,m; int main () { for (n=0;n Name
> Sex Data members
> Age
> Rate per day.

Chamanlal wants to write a C++ program which can keep track of the information related to all Workers working in the construction company.

Solution : The above problem could be solved in C++ using 3 ways. They are :

> Using Simple variables to store all information of each employees
> Using Arrays to store related information of each employees
> Using C++ Structures

Let us explore all these three techniques to store information of each Worker of the company. Assuming that there are total 20 Workers.

Using Variables :

As we have learned in class XI that any type of data could be stored in a C++ variable having a suitable data type. For example in the given problem the following data types must be used to store information related to a Worker :

Data
Data Type
C++ Declaration
Total Size in bytes

Name
char
char name[45] ;
45 x 1 = 45 bytes

Sex
char
char sex = ‘M’
1 x 1 = 1 byte

Age
int
int age = 15 ;
1 x 2 = 2 bytes

Rate per Day
float
float rate = 100.00 ;
1 x 4 = 4 bytes.

So to store the information of 20 Workers one has to declare a total of :
4 x 20 = 80 variables

The variable declarations in the program would be like :
char name1[45] , name2[45] , name3[45] , … , name20[45] ;

char gender1 , gender2 , gender3 , … , gender4 ;

int age1 , age2 , age 3 , … , age20 ;

float rate1 , rate2 , rate3 , … , rate20 ;

Conclusion :

Using the above methodology , we find that as the number of worker increases the number of variables also increases , and thus it becomes difficult task to manage these huge number of variables.

Using Arrays

The drawbacks of the previous method of information storage could be managed up to some extent , if instead of taking separate variables for storing related information of Workers (say Age) , we could have used an array of Age , which would store the age of all 20 employees.
Though this method does not provides a economic solution in terms of memory , it provides a better management of Memory locations , where the information about the employees would be stored.
So, four different arrays would be required to keep the related information of Workers i,e :

1. An array to keep the Names of the Workers
2. An array to keep the Gender of the Workers
3. An array to keep the Age of the Workers
4.An array to keep the Rate of the Workers.

1.Array to keep Names :

“Ramu” “Hari” “kajri” … “Bajrangi”
Name[0] name[1] name[2] … name[19]
Declaration : char name[20]45] ; ;
2. Array to keep Gender:

‘M’ ‘M’ ‘F’ … ‘M’
Gender[0] gender[1] gender[2] ….. gender[19]

Declaration : char gender[20];

3. Array to keep Age:

18 22 24 … 19
age[0] age[1] age[2] … age[19]

Declaration : int age[20];
4. Array to keep Rate:

100 120 140 … 100
rate[0] rate[1] rate[2] … rate[19]
Declaration : float rate[20];

Using C++ Structures :

The previous method of storing related data of Workers in different Arrays is a better a solution than storing them in several separate variables. Though it provides better management of information but as the information related to a Worker increases (Say , along with Name , Age , Sex , and Rate , we also want to store Date Of Join , Category , SSN etc. ) the need for extra Arrays arises , thus Array management would be another cumbersome issue , if we use Arrays to store information of a Worker.
Thus C++ provides us one of its most fascinating programming construct to handle this situation of storing huge amount of related information about similar entities like WORKER.

To solve the given problem using C++ Structure one has to bundle all the information related to a single WORKER under one single tag name. This Bundle of information related to an entity,with a Tag Name is called Structure.

“Ramu” “Hari” “kajri” … “Bajrangi”

‘M’ ‘M’ ‘F’ … ‘M’

18 22 24 … 19

100 120 140 … 100

Let us now have a look at the syntax for creating a structure :

A Structure in C++ is created by using the Keyword struct. The General Syntax for creating a Structure is :

Syntax :
struct < Name of Structure >
{
< datatype > < data-member 1>;
< datatype > < data-member 2>;
< datatype > < data-member 3>;


< datatype > < data-member n>;
} [ ] ;

Example :

A Proper example following the previous syntax could be :

struct WORKER Structure name
{
char name[45];
char gender ; data-member
int age ;
float rate ;

} W1 , W2 , W3 ;

structure variable representing 3 workers.

Points to remember :

1. A structure can declared locally (inside main( ) ) or globally (Outside main( ) ).
//local declaration
main( )
{
struct WORKER
{
char name[45];char gender;…
} W1 , W2 , W3;


}
In this case we can create structure variable only within main( )

//Global declaration
struct WORKER
{
char name[45];char gender;…
};
main( )
{
WORKER W1 , W2 , W3 ;
…… }

In this case we can create structure variable anywhere in the program

If declared globally , the structure variables could be declared both from inside main( ) and any other place outside main( ) function including any other user defined functions.
If declared locally , the structure variables could be declared only within the scope in which the structure has been defined.

2. No data member should be initialized with any value within the structure declaration. i,e the following type of structure declaration is incorrect and cause error :

struct WORKER
{
char name[45];
gender = ‘M’; Invalid Initialization within structure scope
age = 16;
rate = 100.00;
};

4.2.2 : Structure Variable Initialization

Structure variables could be initialized by two ways :
• Static Initialization ( During design time )
• Dynamic Initialization (Passing values during Runtime)

Static Initialization :

WORKER w1 ; // structure variable declaration

w1.name = “Ramu”;
w1.gender = ‘M’; // static initializations
w1.age = 17;
w1.rate = 100.00;

The ( . ) operator here is known as component operator, used to access the data members composing the structure variable.

There is also one another way for static initialization :

WORKER w1 = { “Ramu” , ‘M’ , 17 , 100.00 };

Warning : The declaration as well as initialization should be in the same line.

Dynamic Initialization :

main( )
{
WORKER w1 ;
cout<< “Input Worker’s Name”;cin.getline(w1.name , 45); cout<< “Input Worker’s Gender”;cin >> w1.gender ;

}

4.2.3 Structure variable assignments

We know that every variable in C++ can be assigned any other variable of same data type i,e :
if int a = 7 ; b = 3;
we can write :
a = b ; // assigning the value of b to variable a

Similar is the case with Structure variables also , i,e :
if WORKER w1 = {“Ramu” , ‘M’ , 17 , 100.00};
WORKER w2;
we can write :
w2 = w1 ; // assigning the corresponding individual // data member values of w1 to Worker w2;
or
WORKER w2 = w1;
Note : Both structure variables must be of same type i,e WORKER.

There is a member wise copying of member-wise copying from one structure variable into other variable when we are using assignment operator between them.

So, it is concluded that :
Writing : w1. name = w1.name ;
w1.gender = w2.gender ;
w1.age = w2.age ;
w1.rate = w2.rate ;

is same as :
w1 = w2 ;

Though we can copy the contents of similar types of structure variables , two dissimilar types of structure variables can’t be assigned to each other, even though they may have same types of constituent data members. Assigning values into dissimilar structure variable would cause a incompatible data type error

Consider the two different structures Student , and Worker :

The Student structure can be written as :

struct Student
{
char name[45];
char gender;
int age ;
float height;
};
Compared to Worker Structure , we find that , the data types and sequence of all the data members of structure student is same as that of structure Worker, but still we can never write :

Worker w = {“Ramu” , ‘M’ , 20 , 5.5};

So the following assignments are invalid assignments :

Student s = w ; // Invalid assignment as s and w both are two different structures
or
Student s ;
s = w; //Invalid

4.2.4 Array of Structure :

Just like we can make array of integers , floats , chars we can also make array of user defined data types like structures. The syntax to make such an array is :

[ size ];

where : structure_name is the name of the structure which you have created.
array_name is any valid identifier
size is a positive integer constant.

Example : to create array of 20 Workers we can have :

Worker W[20];

The above structure could be visualized as :

0 1 2 3 4 …. ….. 19

W[0] W[1] W[2] W[2] W[3] … … W[19]
Each of the elements of the array is itself a structure hence each of them have all the four components.

Initialization of Structure Array :
Array of structures like any other array can be initialized statically and dynamically (runtime).

Static initialization : The above array of Workers W[ ] can be statically initialized as :

W[ ] = {
{ “Ramu”, ‘M’ , 17 , 100.00 },
{ “Hari” , ‘M’ , 22 , 120.00 },
{ “kajri” , ‘F’ , 18 , 100.00 },

… //values of other 16 workers.

{“Bajrangi” , ‘M’ , 24 , 140.00 }
};

Note : The data-member values must be supplied in the same order of the data-member
described in structure definition , otherwise datatype mismatch error may cause.

Dynamic Initialization :

#include
#include
main( )
{
Worker W[20] ; // consider the Worker structure declared earlier.

for(int i = 0 ; i<19 ; i++) { cout<<”Input the name, age , gender and wages of worker number”<>W[i].age ; // inputting the age of worker at index i
cin>>W[ i ].gender ;
cin>>W[i].wage;
}

}

4.2.5 : Function with Structure variable:

Just like we can pass various primitive datatypes to a function we can also pass a structure variable as function parameter / arguments. The benefit is that the structure carries a bundled information to the structure. The prototype of such a function would be :

function_name( , … , … );

Let us understand the concept with following program :

//program 4.8
// program to write a function which increases the wage of a female worker by passed percent

void increaseWage( Worker & w , float incr )
{
if( w.gender == ‘F’ || w.gender == ‘f’ )
{
w.wage + = w.wage* (incr /100) ;
}
}
Look at the highlighted parameter, we have passed formal structure variable as reference, so that the increment is reflected back in actual parameter.

Similarly , if we don’t want to pass our structure variable as reference we can do so , but then we have to return the modified structure variable back. This can be achieved in above function, if we take return type as structure name. Let us modify the function so that it returns a structure :

Worker increaseWage( Worker w , float incr)
{
if( w.gender == ‘F’ || w.gender == ‘f’ )
{
w.wage + = w.wage* (incr /100) ;
}
return w ;
}

4.2.6 : Use of typedef statement :
A typedef can be used to indicate how a variable represents something. This means that we are defining another name for an existing datatype. Let us see the following example to understand this.

Suppose we are going to write a program in C++ where we need lot of strings of size 30 say. This means that every time we have to declare character array of size 30 , like char arr[30] or so. Instead of declaring each time with size specification if we have a declaration like :

string arr ;

which automatically instructs the compiler that arr will be a character array of size 30 , then this will give a good look to our program. We can achieve this by using typedef statement as done in the program given below :

#include
typedef char string[30] ;
main( )
{
string name ;
cout<<”Input your name”; gets(name); cout<<”You name has “<< strlen(name)<<”ciharacters”; } The second line defines a new datatype named as string which is nothing but array of 30 characters. Check your Progress : Q1. consider the structure distance given below : struct Distance { int feets , inches; }; Now answer the following : i) what does feets and inches known as ? ii) declare a variable of type Distance and initialize it statically. iii) Can we use = operator between two Distance type variables. If yes, what does it infers? iv) write a function which takes two Distance variable as parameters and then returns their sum. For example say D1 = {9 , 6 } and D2 = {5 , 8 } , then D1 + D2 = 15 feet 2 inches v) Declare an array representing 10 Distances , and then write a program to initialize all these 10 distances and then increase all the distances by 5 feets. Q2. Consider the structure called Point as : struct Point { int xCoord; int yCoord; }; Write a function which accepts three Points as parameter and then checks whether the three points are collinear. Q3. Consider the following structure called Element and Compound : struct Element { int atomic_no; float atomic_mass; char symbol[2]; int valency; }; struct Compound { Element Elements[ 5 ]; // array to keep all elements present in the compound. float molecular_mass; }; Write a program to initialize a compound and show its details. Summary : 1. Structured data types are used in special programming situations like arrays are used when there is bulk of similar type of variables to deal with, whereas structures models a real life entity having some attribute. 2. Arrays can have both primitive as well user defined data types. There are basically two types of arrays , one dimensional and multidimensional ( 2 dimensional ) 3. Functions can be passed structured datatypes as its parameter as well as they can return them. 4. typedef is a special keyword to define a another name for a variable definition. Sample Paper Class – I Subject – Computer Science Time: 3Hours Maximum Marks: 70 Note. (i) All questions are compulsory. 1 a) What are the different functions of operating system? 2 b) How the information can be used as a data explain ? 2 c)What do you mean by unary operators 2 d) What are the different parts of CPU? Explain every part in brief. 2 e) Define System Software and what are its two main types? Give examples.2 f) What is Booting? 1 g) Which of the following are hardware and software? 1 (i) Capacitor (ii) Internet Explorer (iii) Hard disk (iv) UNIX 2. Explain the following term: (Give answer any six) 6 i) Variable ii) Token iii) Array iv) Debugging v) Comment vi) Keyword 3 a) What is the difference b/w “while” & “do while” loop? 2 b) What are data types? What are all predefined data types in c++? 2 c) What will be the size of following constants? 1 ‘\v’,”\v”, d) Write the corresponding C++ expressions for the following mathematical expressions: 1 i) √ (a2+b2) (ii) (a+b)/(p+q) 2 e) Evaluate the following, where p, q are integers and r, f are floating point numbers. The value of p=8, q=4 and r=2.5 (i) f = p * q + p/q (ii) r = p+q + p % q 2 4 a) What is the output of the following? 2 i) # include
void main ( )
{
int i=0;

cout<
void main( )
{
a=3;
a=a+1;
if (a>5)
cout<>ch;
switch (ch)
{ case ‘g’: cout<<”Good”; case ‘b’: cout<<”Bad”; break; case ‘e’: cout<<” excellent ”; break; default: cout<<” wrong choice”; } iv) Determine the output: 2 for(i=20;i<=100;i+=10) { j=i/2; cout<>val;
res = n+val >1750 ? 400:200;
cout<>>X;
for(Y=0,Y<10, Y++) if X= =Y cout<>Y; }
b) Convert the following code segment into switch case construct. 3

int ch;
cin>>ch;
If(ch = = 1)
{ cout<<“ Laptop”; } else If(ch = = 2) { cout<<“Desktop ”; } else if(ch= = 3) { cout<<“Notebook”; } else { cout<<“Invalid Choice”; } } } c) Convert the following code segment into do-while loop. 3 #include
void main()
{ int i;
for(i=1;i<=20;++i) cout<<”\n”<>y(correct cout<>ch;
switch(ch)
{
Case 1 : cout<<“ Laptop”; break; Case 2: cout<<“Desktop ”; break; Case 3: cout<<“Notebook”;break; Default : cout<<“Invalid Choice”; } c. #include
void main()
{ int i;
i=1
do
{ cout<<”\n”<
#include

void main()
{
clrscr();
int year;
cout<<"Enter Year(ex:1900):"; cin>>year;
if(year%100==0)
{
if(year%400==0)
cout<<"\nLeap Year"; } else if(year%4==0) cout<<"\nLeap Year"; else cout<<"\nNot a Leap Year"; getch(); } b. #include
#include
void main()
{
int Number,Temp,b=0;
cout<>Number;
Temp=Number;
int P;
while(Temp>0)
{
P=Temp%10;
b=b P*P*P;
Temp=Temp/10;
}
if(b==Number)
{
Cout<
int factorial(int);

void main(void) {
int number;

cout << "Please enter a positive integer: "; cin >> number;
if (number < 1) cout << "That is not a positive integer.\n"; else cout << number << " factorial is: " << factorial(number) << endl; } int factorial(int number) { if(number <= 1) return 1; else return number * factorial(number - 1); } d. #include
#include
int main()
{
clrscr();
unsigned long first,second,third,n;
int i;
first=0;
second=1;
cout<<"how many elements(>5)? \n”;
cin>>n;
cout<<"fibonacci series\n"; cout<
#include
void main()
{
int r,m,i,n;
cout<<"Enter the number to generate its table"; cin>>n;
cout<<"Enter the number(table upto)"; cin>>m;
i=1;
while(i<=m) { r=n*i; cout< and #include”iostream.h” 2

Q3)
a) Classify the following variable names of c++ into valid and invalid category 2
(i) 1no (ii) num 1 (iii) num (iv) num1num (v) num+1 (vi) num.1

b) Give output of following code. 3
#include
int m=5; void check();
void main( )
{ int m=20;
{
int m=10*::m;
cout<<"m="<
#include
#include
void main( )
{
int A[10][10];
int i,j,N;
clrscr( );
cout<<"\nHow many rows and columns required for matrix: "; cin>>N;
cout<<"\nEnter "<>A[i][j];
}
clrscr( );
}

cout<<"\nThe entered elements in the matrix are: \n"; for(i=0;i
#include
long f =1;
long factorial(int n)
{
if (n==0)
return f;
else
f=n*factorial(n-1);
}
void main( )
{
clrscr( );
long num;
cout<<"\nEnter the number to which you want to find factorial: "; cin>>num;
cout<<"\nThe factorial of the number = "<
#include
#include
void main( )
{
char str[300];
int i,charcount=0,words=1,lines=1;
clrscr();
cout<<"\nEnter the Paragraph ie message: \n"; gets(str); for(i=0;str[i]!='\0';i++) { charcount++; if(str[i]==’ ‘) words++; if (charcount%80==0) lines++; } cout<<"\nNumber of Characters in the entered message: "<
#include
void main( )
{
clrscr( );
int A[20],N,i,j,temp;
cout<<”\nEnter the number of elements:”; cin>>N;
for(i=0;i>A[i];
//Bubble sort technique
for(i=0;iA[j+1])
{
Temp=A[j];
A[j]=A[j+1];
A[j+1]=Temp;
}
cout<<"The Elements in the array after sorting…. "; for(i=0;i
#include
#include void main( )
{
clrscr( );
double d1,d2,b,a,c,d;
cout<<"\nEnter the value of b,a and c: "; cin>>b>>a>>c;
d=(b*b-sqrt(4*a*c));
if(d==0)
cout<<"\nRoots are equal or distinct"; else if(d>=0)
cout<<"\nRoots are Real"; else { cout<<"\nRoots are complex..ie Imaginary"; d1=(-b+d)/(2*a); d2=(b+d)/(2*a); cout<<"\nD1: "<
void Withdef(int HisNum=30)
{
for(int I=20;I<=HisNum;I+=5) cout<=’A’ && ch<=’Z’)||( ch>=’a’ && ch<=’z)) { switch(ch) { case ‘a’: case ‘e’: case ‘i’: case ‘o’: case ‘u’: case ‘U’: ++v; break; default : ++o; }cout<
int main
{
struct movie
{
char movie_name[20];
char movie_type;
int ticket_cost=100;
}movie;

gets(movie_name);
gets(movie_type);
}

A)
#include
#include
void main( )
{
struct movie
{
char movie_name[20];
char movie_type;
int ticket_cost;
}Movie;
Movie.ticket_cost=100;
gets(Movie.movie_name);
cin>>Movie.movie_type;
}

c. Define the terms Polymorphism & Inheritance. 2

d.Write the output of the following program. 3

#include
void main()
{
int x = 5;
if(x++ = = 5)
cout<<”five”<
jampto(int, int )
void main()
{
first=10, second=20;
jumpto(first;second);
jumpto(second);
}
void jumpto(int n1, intn2=20)
{
n1=n1+n2;
}

(b) Find the output : 3
void result(int &x, int y=10)
{
int temp = x + y;
x + = temp;
if(y <=10) y + = temp; } void main( ) { int A1=10, B2=5; result(A1, B2); cout<
void main( )
{
int i = 0, x = 0;
do
{
if(i % 5 = = 0)
{ cout<
#include
#include
void main( )
{
int A[10][10];
int i,j,N;
clrscr( );
cout<<"\nHow many rows and columns required for matrix: "; cin>>N;
cout<<"\nEnter "<>A[i][j];
}
clrscr( );
cout<<"\nThe entered elements in the matrix are: \n"; for(i=0;i
#include
long f =1;
long factorial(int n)
{
if (n==0)
return f;
else
f=n*factorial(n-1);
}
void main( )
{
clrscr( );
long num;
cout<<"\nEnter the number to which you want to find factorial: "; cin>>num;
cout<<"\nThe factorial of the number = "<
#include
#include
void main( )
{
char str[300];
int i,charcount=0,words=1,lines=1;
clrscr();
cout<<"\nEnter the Paragraph ie message: \n"; gets(str); for(i=0;str[i]!='\0';i++) { charcount++; if(str[i]==' ‘) words++; if (charcount%80==0) lines++; } cout<<"\nNumber of Characters in the entered message: "<
#include
void main( )
{
clrscr( );
int A[20],N,i,j,temp;
cout<<”\nEnter the number of elements:”; cin>>N;
for(i=0;i>A[i];
//Bubble sort technique
for(i=0;iA[j+1])
{ Temp=A[j];
A[j]=A[j+1];
A[j+1]=Temp;
}
cout<<"The Elements in the array after sorting…. "; for(i=0;i

#include
#include void main( )
{
clrscr( );
double d1,d2,b,a,c,d;
cout<<"\nEnter the value of b,a and c: "; cin>>b>>a>>c;
d=(b*b-sqrt(4*a*c));
if(d==0)
cout<<"\nRoots are equal or distinct"; else if(d>=0)
cout<<"\nRoots are Real"; else cout<<"\nRoots are complex..ie Imaginary"; d1=(-b+d)/(2*a); d2=(b+d)/(2*a); cout<<"\nD1: "<

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